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AuthorUnderwood, James Cressee Elphinstone. author
TitleIntroduction to Biopsy Interpretation and Surgical Pathology [electronic resource] / by James Cressee Elphinstone Underwood
ImprintLondon : Springer London, 1987
Edition Second Edition
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Descript XIV, 218 p. 63 illus. online resource


Preface to the Second Edition Since publication of the first edition, continuing developments in histopathology have motivated the inclusion of four new chapters: cytology, immunohistology, quality control and assessment, and the autopsy. The increasing use of cytology in clinical practice and advances in techniques and diagnostic interpretation justify the devotion of more space than formerly to this important topic. Immunohistology now merits a separate chapter because it has a status beyond that of being just another "special stain" and there are certain aspects of technique and interpretation that are peculiar to it. Quality control and assessment in histopathology are very topical and important now that greater attention is being paid to cost effectiveness and the auditing of many aspects of clinical practice. The autopsy is an integral part of the professional life of a histopathologist and, though it lacks the immediate clinical impact of the biopsy diagnosis, it nevertheless constitutes an important activity in all hospitals; without detailing dissection techniques I have provided some information and guidance about the autopsy which I believe will be useful to trainees and of interest to others. The remainder of the book has been thoroughly revised and updated, and illustrations and tables added where experience has shown that the text is insufficient. Sheffield, October 1986 J. C. E. Underwood Preface to the First Edition This book is primarily addressed to the needs of the trainee histopathologist


1 Diagnostic Histopathology -- Origins of Histopathology -- The Objectives of Histopathology -- Medicolegal Aspects -- The Histopathological Diagnosis -- Adverse Effects of Biopsy -- Prospects for Histopathology -- 2 Macroscopy, Microscopy and Sampling -- Sampling Error -- Sampling Biopsies and Surgical Resections -- Specific Types of Biopsy -- Specimen Radiology -- Section Thickness -- Imprints and Smears -- Information and Magnification -- 3 The Use of Stains -- Principles of Staining -- Indications for Special Stains -- Identification of Specific Substances and Cells -- Autoradiography -- 4 Immunohistology -- Techniques for Immunohistology -- Primary Antibodies -- Bridging Reagents -- Tracer Substances -- Fixation -- Use of Enzymes to Unmask Antigens -- Endogenous Peroxidase -- Controls -- Common Applications -- Problems of Interpretation -- Immuno-electron Microscopy -- 5 Interpretation of Histological Appearances -- Artifact of Sections -- Basic Microscopy -- Artifacts in Sections -- Methods of Interpretation -- Clinicopathological Integration -- Morphology of Disease Processes -- 6 Cytology -- Relative Merits of Cytology and Histology -- Cytological Preparations -- Stains for Cytology -- Special Investigations -- Interpretation -- Applications -- Living Cells -- Reporting Cytology -- 7 Borderline Lesions, Pseudomalignancy and Mimicry -- Borderline Lesions -- Mimicry of Histological Features -- Pseudomalignancy and Related Diagnostic Problems -- Conclusions -- 8 Rapid Frozen Section Diagnosis -- Clinical Indications -- Methods -- Interpretation -- Common Applications -- Reliability -- 9 Diagnostic Electron Microscopy -- Principles of Transmission Electron Microscopy -- Diagnostic Value of Electron Microscopy -- Scanning Electron Microscopy -- X-ray Microanalysis -- 10 Quantitative Methods -- Stereological Principles -- Stereological Methods -- Automatic and Semi-automatic Image Analysis -- Microspectrophotometry -- Flow Cytometry -- Practical Applications -- 11 Reporting and Classification of Biopsy Diagnoses -- The Biopsy Report -- Disease Classification -- Data Storage and Retrieval -- Clinical Assimilation -- 12 Quality Assessment and Control -- Sources of Diagnostic Error -- The โ{128}{156}Correctโ{128}{157} Diagnosis -- Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods -- Evaluation of Performance -- Illustrative Examples -- Self Assessment -- Assessment of Errors of Procedure and Communication -- Conclusions -- 13 The Autopsy -- History of the Autopsy -- The Autopsy and Clinical Audit -- Role in Medical Education -- Hazards in the Autopsy Room -- Consent -- General Techniques -- Special Methods -- Post-mortem Histology

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