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TitleThe history of alternative test methods in toxicology / [edited by] Michael Balls, Robert Combes, Andrew Worth
ImprintLondon ; San Diego, CA : Elsevier/Academic Press, [2019]
Edition First edition
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Descript xxxi, 350 pages : illustrations, charts ; 28 cm


I: Setting the scene -- The introduction and influence of the concept of humane experimental technique -- Types of toxicity and applications of toxicity testing -- The key technologies -- II: Contributing from countries, regions and organisations -- Alternative methods in toxicity testing in the UK -- Contributions from the german-speaking countries -- Contributions to alternatives from italy and spain -- Contributions to alternatives from the Netherlands, Belgium and France -- Contributions of the scandinavian countries to the development of non-animal alternatives in toxicology -- The three rs and alternatives in the visegrad (V4) countries -- Australia and New Zealand -- Japanese contributions to the development of alternative test methods -- Contributions to the development of alternatives in toxicology in China and Brazil -- The role of ECVAM -- The center for alternatives to animal testing in the USA and Europe -- USA: ICCVAM and NICEATM -- US vision for toxicity testing in the 21st century -- USA: contributions from the institute for in vitro sciences and the animal protection community -- Involvement of the organisation for economic cooperation and development -- III: Important issues related to types of application -- Animal-free cosmetics in europe -- Safety assessment of pharmaceuticals -- Chemicals and pesticides: a long way to go -- Alternative approaches for the assessment of chemicals in food -- A replacement perspective on inhalation toxicology -- Alternative approaches for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity -- Biologicals, including vaccines -- The use of imaging, biomonitoring and microdosing in human volunteers to improve safety assessments and clinical development -- IV: Data mining and data sharing -- Scientific journals as beacons on the journey toward global three rs awareness -- Dissemination of information on alternative methods: databases and systems -- V: Key technologies and tools -- The development and application of key technologies and tools -- Biologically-inspired microphysiological systems -- Computational methods to predict toxicity -- Integrated approaches to testing and assessment -- The validation of alternative test methods -- VI: Current status of alternatives and future prospects -- Alternative toxicity test methods: lessons learned and yet to be learned -- The current situation and prospects for tomorrow: toward the achievement of historical ambitions

Animal testing alternatives -- history Toxicity tests -- methods Toxicity tests -- history Toxicology -- ethics

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