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TitleInternational Symposium on Metabolism, Physiology, and Clinical Use of Pentoses and Pentitols [electronic resource] : Hakone, Japan, August 27th-29th, 1967 / edited by Bernard L. Horecker, Konrad Lang, Yasuyuki Takagi
ImprintBerlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1969
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-46191-0
Descript VIII, 408 p. online resource

SUMMARY

In recent times it has come to be realized that pentoses are important as building blocks in the organism and as intermediate products in metaยญ bolism. The finding that ribose and desoxyribose are nucleic acid conยญ stituents and the discovery of the pentose-phosphate cycle have put these substances in a central position in biochemical research. The conยญ current realization that the pentitol, xylitol, is involved in an important metabolic cycle and that the body can handle it in quantities comparable in magnitude to the well-known carbohydrates has resulted in extensive experimental and clinical studies, especially in Germany and Japan. Some of the properties of xylitol, e.g. its independence of insulin and also its utilization in other disturbances of the glucose metabolism have aroused considerable interest among clinicians. The initial experiments have shown that xylitol may be of significant therapeutic value, and more extensive research work into the possible clinical applications of xylitol is being undertaken. Xylitol research is a typical example of the interrelation of the clinical and experimental approaches to a problem. These rapid advances in knowledge made it necessary to bring together workers in both the research and clinical fields in order that they might discuss their findings in critical fashion and advance our understanding of this subject


CONTENT

Opening Remarks. -- Session I: Metabolism of Pentoses and Pentitols -- The Role of Pentitols and other Polyols in Evolutionary Development -- Vitamin B12-Dependent Conversion of Ribonucleotides to Deoxyribo-nucleotides. -- Enzymatic Reduction of Ribonucleotides in Escherichia coli. -- The Uronic Acid Pathway and its Defect in Essential Pentosuria. -- Pentitol-Metabolizing Enzymes of the Uronic Acid Pathway. -- Metabolism of Xylose by the Lens of the Eye. -- Pentoses in Mucopolysaccharides and Glycoproteins. -- Formation of a New Family of Aminopentose Phosphates by Extracts of Streptomyces albonigev. -- Session II: Physiology of Pentoses and Pentitols -- Utilization of Xylitol in Animals and Man. -- Utilization of Xylitol in Human Erythrocytes. -- Experimental Findings on the Utilization of Xylitol in the Heart Muscle of the Guinea Pig. -- Absorption of Xylitol. -- Effect of Xylitol on the Metabolic Rate of Glucose in Alloxan Diabetic Rat Liver Slices. -- Adaptive Processes Concerned with Absorption and Metabolism of Xylitol. -- Comment: Inducing Effect of Xylitol in Rats. -- Effect of Xylitol on Pyridine Nucleotide Levels in the Liver of Rats. -- Characteristics of Sugar Transport in the Rabbit Adrenal. Studies by Non-Utilizable Pentoses and Xylitol. -- Stimulation of Insulin Secretion by Xylitol Administration. -- Comment: Effect of Intravenous Injection of Xylitol on Plasma Insulin. -- Comment: Some Recent Observations on Xylitol-Induced Insulin Secretion. -- Comment: The Effect of Glucose, Fructose, Xylitol or Sorbitol Loading on the Blood Sugar, Serum NEFA and Immuno-Reactive Insulin (IRI) in the Cases with Hyperinsulinism. -- The Influence of Xylitol and other Polyols and Sugars on Fat Mobilization. -- Comment: Xylitol Effect on Ketogenesis in Alloxan Diabetic Rat Liver Slice. -- Comment: Effect of Xylitol on Individual Free Fatty Acids in the Plasma. -- Comment: The Substitution of Dietary Carbohydrate with Xylitol and its Effect on the Plasma Lipids. -- The Activity of the Glucuronic Acid Pathway in Human and Experimental Diabetes. -- Prevention of Choline-Deficiency Fatty Liver of Rats with Xylitol. -- Session III: Clinical Use of Pentoses and Pentitols -- The Effect of Intravenous Administration of Xylitol Solutions in Normal Persons and in Patients with Liver Diseases and Diabetes mellitus. -- The Effect of Xylitol on Activities of Hepatic Enzymes in Normal and Alloxanized Rats. -- Comment: Some Effects of Xylitol on Carbohydrate Metabolism. -- Clinical Application of Xylitol in Diabetes. -- Comment: Difference in Metabolic Effects of D-Ribose and Xylitol in the Diabetic State. -- Preventing Effect of Xylitol on Suppression of Adrenocortical Function by Steroid Therapy. -- The Use of Polyols in Pediatrics. -- Comment: The Clinical Use of Xylitol in Pediatrics. -- Carbohydrates and Polyols for Energy Supply of the Surgical Patient. -- Xylitol Infusion Related to Pathophysiology in Anesthesia. -- Observations on the Anticatabolic Effect of Xylitol in the Posttraumatic Phase. -- Effect of Xylitol Administration on Levels of Blood Sugar and Plasma Free Amino Acids Following Abdominal Surgery. -- Closing Remarks. -- Participants at the Symposium


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