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TitleThe Renal Papilla and Hypertension [electronic resource] / edited by Anil K. Mandal, Sven-Olof Bohman
ImprintBoston, MA : Springer US, 1980
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Descript XXIV, 238 p. online resource


LOUIS TOBIAN There are many reasons for suspecting that the medulla of the kidney is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although our present knowledge does not permit the assignment of a precise and exact role for the medulla, there are so many indications of its involvement that this is an appropriate time for the subject to be thoroughly reviewed, as Drs. MandaI and Bohman have done in this volume. The involvement of the renal medulla in hypertension was first strongly indicated by the studies of Eric Muirhead. Studying renoprival hypertenยญ sion, he demonstrated that the injection of extracts of renal medulla could prevent this type of hypertension in the dog, rabbit, and rat. Subsequently, a number of experiments showed that implants of renal medulla could not only prevent renoprival hypertension but also greatly reduce the level of blood pressure in Goldblatt hypertension in the rat and rabbit. It was later noted that the majority of the surviving cells in these medullary implants were interstitial cells. Pitcock and Muirhead were able to culture these interstitial cells, and implants of the cultured cells lowered blood pressure in renoprival hypertension and Goldblatt hypertension, particularly in the rat. We were able to confirm these general observations by employing implants of medulla in "postsalt" hypertension. The medullary implants did indeed bring the blood pressure down


1 The Ultrastructure of the Renal Medulla and the Interstitial Cells -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Renal Medulla -- 3. The Interstitial Cells -- References -- 2 Evidence for an Involvement of the Renal Papilla in Hypertension -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Antihypertensive Action of Transplants of Fragmented Renal Papilla -- 3. Monolayer Tissue Culture of RIC -- 4. Antihypertensive Action of Cultured RIC -- 5. Morphology of Transplants of Cultured RIC -- 6. The Lipid Granuleโ{128}{148}Cisternal Organelle Relationship of RIC -- 7. Renomedullary (RIC) Deficiency in Hypertension -- 8. Renomedullary Interstitial Cell Tumor -- 9. Inhibition of the Converting Enzyme (Kininase II) and the Action of RIC -- 10. Antihypertensive Lipids Derivable from Fresh Renal Medulla -- 11. Antihypertensive Action of Cultured RIC and of Lipids Derived from the Same Tissue Culture -- 12. Three Additional Special Features of RIC -- 13. Discussion -- References -- 3 Studies on the Mechanism of the Renomedullary Hypertensive Action -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Endocrine-Type Antihypertensive Activity of the Renal Medulla -- 3. The Mediator of Renomedullary Antihypertensive Function -- 4. What Signals the Medulla to Release Antihypertensive Renomedullary Substance? -- 5. The Mechanism of Renomedullary Antihypertensive Action -- 6. Concluding Remarks -- References -- 4 Vasodepressor Substances Extractable from Kidney Tissue -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Earlier Work on Antihypertensive Effects of Extracts of Whole Kidney Tissue -- 3. Renomedullary Antihypertensive Lipids -- 4. Renin Inhibitors and Phospholipases -- 5. Renal Kinins -- 6. Concluding Remarks -- References -- 5 Renal Prostaglandin Synthesis and Metabolism in Normal and Hypertensive States -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Renal Effects of Prostaglandins -- 3. Regulation of Prostaglandin Metabolism in the Kidney -- 4. Prostaglandins in Hypertension -- 5. Renomedullary Interstitital Cells and Prostaglandins -- 6. Renal Prostaglandin Metabolism in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat -- 7. Conclusions and Future Directions -- References -- 6 Fatty Acid Composition and Depot Function of Lipid Droplet Triacylglycerols in Renomedullary Interstitial Cells -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Isolation and Characterization of Papillary Lipid Droplets -- 3. Biochemical Investigations of the Renal Papilla -- 4. Comparison between in Vitro and in Vivo Data -- 5. Conclusion: The Physiological Role of the Lipid Droplets of Renomedullary Interstitial Cells -- References -- 7 Alterations in the Renal Medullary and Papillary Interstitial Cells in Experimental and Spontaneous (Essential) Hypertension -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Experimental Hypertensions -- 3. Value of Electron Microscopy in Defining the Chemical Nature of Papillary Interstitial Granules -- 4. Relationship of Renal Papillary Interstitial Granules to Essential (Spontaneous) Hypertension -- 5. Relationship of Interstitial Cellular Granules to Renomedullary Vasodepressor Substances -- 6. Significance of the Studies of the Renal Papillary Interstitial Cells in Rat -- 7. Obstacles to Human Study -- References -- 8 Regulation of Plasma Flow and Other Functions of the Renal Papilla in Hypertension -- 1. Studies of Plasma Flow to the Renal Papilla in Experimental and Spontaneous Hypertension -- 2. Relationship between Renomedullary Interstitial Cell Granules, Sodium, and Prostaglandins in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats -- References -- 9 Prostaglandin E2 Biosynthesis by Renomedullary Interstitial Cells: In Vitro Studies and Patholphysiological Correlations -- 1 Introduction -- 2. Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism by Rabbit Renomedullary Interstitial Cells in Tissue Culture -- 3. Pathophysiological Correlations -- 4. Conclusions -- References -- 10 Influence of Renal Prostaglandins on Renin Release -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Renin-Angiotensin System -- 3. The Renal Prostaglandins -- 4. Influence of Renal Prostaglandins on Renin Release -- 5. Prostaglandins and the Different Receptors for Renin Release -- 6. Impaired Prostaglandin Production and Unresponsiveness of Renin Secretion in Essential Hypertension -- 7. Conclusion -- References

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