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AuthorWatkins, Robert G. author
TitleSurgical Approaches to the Spine [electronic resource] / by Robert G. Watkins
ImprintNew York, NY : Springer US, 1983
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The desire to expose the spine for surgery by anterior approaches at any level between the head and the sacrum is not new. Spinal pathology is often located anterior to the spinal cord and nerve roots in the cervical and thoracic spine, and anterior to the peripheral nerves that emerge from the lumbosacral spine below the first lumbar verยญ tebra. To treat such pathology one prefers to expose the front of the spine directly and widely enough to eradicate the pathology and to have full control of bleeding throughout the procedure. The posterior elements of the spine are important for mechanical stability of the spine, and therefore for the protection of the neural and vascular structures in the spine that would be threatened by instability. Extensive eradication of pathology posterior to the spinal canal and the intervertebral foraminae, including the transverse processes, may leave no adequate bony bed for the surgical creation of a stabilizing osseous fusion. In such a situation, an anterior fusion procedure is the only viable alternative to a posterior or posterolateral fusion. In situations where it is critically important to obtain a stable fusion, as in tuberculosis of the spine, both an anterior and a posterior fusion operation at the same motion segments is, in almost every instance, a guarantee of a stable osseous fusion. One should know both approaches


1 Anterior Cervical Approaches to the Spine -- 2 Transoral Approach to C1โ{128}{147}2 -- 3 Anterior Medial Approach to C1,2,3 -- 4 Anterior Lateral Approach to the Upper Cervical Spine -- 5 Anterior Medial Approach to the Midcervical Spine -- 6 Lateral Approach to the Cervical Spine (Verbiest) -- 7 Lateral Approach to the Cervical Spine (Hodgson) -- 8 Supraclavicular Approach -- 9 Lincoln Highway Approach to the Cervical Spine -- 10 Cervical-Thoracic Junction -- 11 Transaxillary Approach to the Upper Dorsal Spine -- 12 Third Rib Resection in the Transthoracic Approach -- 13 Thoracotomy Approach -- 14 The Thoracolumbar Junction -- 15 Tenth Rib: Thoracoabdominal Approach -- 16 Eleventh Rib Approach -- 17 Twelfth Rib Approach -- 18 Anterior Retroperitoneal Flank Approach to L2โ{128}{147}5 of the Lumbar Spine -- 19 Anterior Retroperitoneal Flank Approach to L5โ{128}{147}S1 -- 20 Anterior Extraperitoneal Midline Incision of L2โ{128}{147}S1 -- 21 Transperitoneal Midline Approach to L4โ{128}{147}S1 -- 22 Superior Hypogastric Sympathetic Plexus -- 23 Approach to the Posterior Aspect of C1โ{128}{147}2 -- 24 Cervical Foraminotomy: Indications and Technique -- 25 Costotransversectomy -- 26 Posterior Approach to the Lower Lumbar Spine -- 27 Lumbar Laminotomy, Foraminotomy, Root Decompression, and Discectomy in the Lateral Position -- 28 Bilateral Paraspinous Lumbosacral Approach

Medicine Neurosurgery Orthopedics Medicine & Public Health Surgical Orthopedics Neurosurgery


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