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TitleContemporary Nephrology [electronic resource] : Volume 2 / edited by Saulo Klahr, Shaul G. Massry
ImprintBoston, MA : Springer US, 1983
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6722-6
Descript XXVI, 794 p. online resource

CONTENT

1 Membrane Transport: Ion Transport in the Kidney and Anuran Epitheliaโ{128}{148}Mechanisms of Aldosterone Action -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The General Effects of Aldosterone -- 2.1. General Effects of Aldosterone in Anuran Epithelia -- 2.2. General Effects of Aldosterone in the Nephron -- 2.3. General Effects of Aldosterone on Other Mammalian Epithelia -- 3. Mechanisms for the Regulation of Epithelial Ion Transport -- 3.1. The Transport of Sodium Ions -- 3.2. The Transport of Potassium Ions -- 3.3. Proton Transport -- 4. Advances in Explaining the Mechanism of Aldosterone Action -- 4.1. Effect of Aldosterone on Metabolism -- 4.2. Effect of Aldosterone on Na, K-ATPase -- 4.3. Effects of Aldosterone on Ionic Conductances -- 4.4. Effects of Aldosterone on the Synthesis of Specific Proteins -- 4.5. Effects of Aldosterone on Plasma Membranes and Lipid Metabolism -- 5. Summary -- References -- 2 Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Chloride Excretion -- 1. Autoregulation of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate -- 2. Factors That Influence Renal Hemodynamics -- 2.1. Neural Control -- 2.2. Vasoactive Agents -- 3. Sodium Excretion -- 3.1. Aldosterone in the Regulation of Sodium Excretion -- 3.2. Neural Reflex Control of Sodium Excretion -- 3.3. Intrarenal Hormone Action on Sodium Excretion -- 3.4. Physical Factors in the Regulation of Sodium Excretion -- 4. Chloride Transport -- References -- 3 Renal Metabolism -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methodological Considerations -- 2.1. The Isolated Perfused Rat Kidney -- 2.2. Isolated Renal Tubules from Proximal and Distal Segments -- 2.3. Brush Border and Basolateral Membrane Preparations -- 2.4. Renal Cell Culture Techniques -- 2.5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) -- 3. Biochemistry of Tubular Transport -- 3.1. Mechanisms of Transport -- 3.2. Relationships to Oxidative Metabolism -- 4. Selected Aspects of Intermediary Metabolism -- 4.1. Role of Calcium and Calcium Transport -- 4.2. H+ and Intracellular pH -- 4.3. Gluconeogenesis -- 5. Coupling of Active Ion Transport and Aerobic Metabolism -- 6. Renal Lipid Metabolism -- 6.1. Fatty Acid Metabolism -- 6.2. Triacylglycerol (TG) -- 6.3. Complex Lipids -- 6.4. Cholesterol -- 7. Hormones and the Kidney -- 7.1. Sites of Action along the Nephron -- 7.2. Steroid Hormones -- 7.3. Mechanism of Actionโ{128}{148}Aldosterone -- References -- 4 Renal Prostaglandins -- 1. Biochemistry of Renal Prostaglandins -- 1.1. Localization of Prostaglandin Synthesis -- 1.2. The Lipoxygenase Pathway -- 1.3. Renal Phospholipase -- 1.4. Prostaglandin Degradation -- 2. The Role of Prostaglandins in the Control of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate -- 2.1. Renal Prostaglandins and the Control of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Rat -- 2.2. The Importance of Renal Prostaglandins in the Control of Renal Blood Flow during Sodium Depletion -- 2.3. Prostaglandins as Regulators of Renal Blood Flow after Reduction of Cardiac Output or in Hepatic Disease -- 2.4. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors in the Presence of Renal Insufficiency -- 2.5. Summary -- 3. The Interrelations between Antidiuretic Hormone and Prostaglandins -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.2. The Physiologic Interactions of Antidiuretic Hormone and Prostaglandins -- 3.3. Vasopressin and Renal Prostaglandin Synthesis -- 3.4. Effects of Prostaglandins on Urea Permeability -- 3.5. The Possible Interactions of Prostaglandins with Vasopressin-Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase and Intracellular Cyclic AMP -- 3.6. Polyurie States, Diseases of Urinary Concentrating Mechanisms and the Role of Prostaglandins -- 4. Renal Prostaglandin Synthesis and Sodium Excretion -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. Sodium Intake as a Determinant of Prostaglandin Excretion -- 4.3. Cyclooxygenase Inhibition and Na Excretion -- 4.4. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors and Diuretics -- 5. Prostaglandins and Renin Secretion by the Kidney -- 5.1. In Vitro Studies of Prostaglandins and Renin -- 5.2. In Vivo Studies of Prostaglandin Infusion and Renin Release -- 5.3. The Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Renin Secretion in Vivo -- 5.4. Prostaglandins, Renin, Potassium, and Bartterโ{128}{153}s Syndrome -- 6. Renal Prostaglandins and Thromboxane: A Possible Role in Hypertension -- 6.1. Renal Prostaglandin and Thromboxane Synthesis in Experimental and Human Hypertension -- 6.2. The Effects of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Blood Pressure -- 7. The Role of Prostaglandins and Thromboxane in the Renal Response to Diverse Injuries -- 7.1. Ureteral Obstruction -- 7.2. The Role of Thromboxane in the Potassium-Depleted Rat Kidney and in Acute Renal Failure -- 7.3. Platelet Thromboxane and Vascular Prostacyclin in Renal Failure -- 7.4. Interactions of the Renal Kallikrein-Kinin System with Prostaglandins -- References -- 5 Acid-Base Physiology and Pathophysiology -- 1. Bicarbonate Reabsorption and Its Regulation -- 1.1. Mechanism -- 1.2. Factors That Regulate Bicarbonate Reabsorption -- 2. Acid Excretion and Its Regulation -- 2.1. Ammonia Production and Ammonium Excretion -- 2.2. Role of Aldosterone and Potassium -- 2.3. Role of Other Steroid Hormones -- 2.4. Role of Distal Sodium Delivery and Transport -- 3. Urinary PCO2 as an Index of Distal Acidification -- 3.1. Urinary PCO2 during Sodium Bicarbonate Loading -- 3.2. Urine PCO2 during Neutral Sodium Phosphate Infusion -- 4. Acidification by Epithelial Membranes Analogous to the Mammalian Collecting Duct -- 4.1. Nature of the Proton Pump -- 4.2. Factors That Regulate Proton Secretion -- 5. Role of Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Vitamin D on Acid-Base Homeostasis -- 6. Clinical Syndromes -- 6.1. Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis of Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (DRTA) -- 6.2. โ{128}{156}Secretoryโ{128}{157} DRTA -- 6.3. โ{128}{156}Back-Leakโ{128}{157} DRTA -- 6.4. Distal RTA with Intact Capacity to Lower Urinary pH (Rate-Dependent DRTA) -- 6.5. Hyperkalemic DRTA -- 6.6. Selective Aldosterone Deficiency (SAD) (โ{128}{156}Type IV RTAโ{128}{157}) -- 6.7. Aldosterone Resistance -- 7. Diagnosis and Treatment -- References -- 6 Mineral Metabolism in Health and Disease -- 1. Parathyroid Hormone -- 1.1. Biosynthesis of PTH -- 1.2. Regulation of PTH Secretion -- 1.3. Regulation of PTH Secretion in Hyperparathyroidism -- 1.4. Metabolism of PTH -- 1.5. Pitfalls in the Interpretation of the Immunoassay for PTH -- 1.6. Parathyroid Hormone: Renal Effects -- 1.7. PTH as a Uremic Toxin -- 2. Calcium and Magnesium: Physiology and Pathophysiology -- 2.1. Renal Handling of Magnesium -- 2.2. Renal Handling of Calcium -- 2.3. Hypercalcemia -- 2.4. Hypocalcemia -- 3. Phosphate Physiology and Pathophysiology -- 3.1. Gastrointestinal Absorption -- 3.2. Renal Handling of Phosphate -- 3.3. Hypophosphatemia -- 3.4. Hyperphosphatemia -- 4. Renal Osteodystrophy -- 4.1. Pathogenesis -- 4.2. Diagnosis -- 4.3. Therapy -- References -- 7 Renal Vascular Hypertension -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Incidence -- 3. Pathophysiology -- 4. Clinical Expression -- 5. Diagnostic Considerations -- 5.1. Intravenous Pyelography -- 5.2. Radioisotope Renography -- 5.3. Digital Subtraction Angiography -- 5.4. Plasma Renin Activity -- 5.5. Angiotensin Competitive Antagonists -- 6. Results of Surgery -- 7. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty -- 8. Medical Therapy in Renovascular Hypertension -- 9. Renal Function: The Effect of Therapy -- 10. Conclusion -- References -- 8 Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Nephrology: Recent Developments -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Microscopic Examination and Dip Tests of the Urine -- 2.1. Leukocyte Esterase Dip Test -- 2.2. Hematuria -- 2.3. Fluorescent-Y-Body Urine Cytology -- 3. Urine Indices and Excretion Products -- 3.1. Fractional Electrolyte Excretion -- 3.2. Renal Tubular Antigen -- 3.3. ?-2-Microglobulin -- 3.4. Urine Immunoreactive Thromboxane B2 -- 4. Radioisotope Techniques -- 4.1. Renography -- 4.2. Renal Function Studies -- 4.3. Isotope Imaging -- 5. Sonography -- 5.1. Renal Size and Obstructive Uropathy -- 5.2. In Utero Renal Abnormalities -- 5.3. Renal and Juxtarenal Masses -- 5.4. Renal Vascular Problems -- 5.5. Other Renal Pathology -- 6. Radiography -- 7. Computed Tomography -- 7.1. Tumors and Masses -- 7.2. Renal Trauma -- 7.3. Renal Dysfunction -- 7.4. Renal Vascular Disorders -- 7.5. Dynamic Data -- 8. Digital Subtraction Angiography -- 9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance -- References -- 9 Immunological Aspects of Renal Disease -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Immune-Complex-Mediated Glomerulonephritis -- 2.1. Basic Investigations -- 2.2. Autologous Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis -- 2.3. Murine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -- 2.4. Circulating Immune Complexes -- 3. Complement and Renal Diseases -- 4. Coagulation in Renal Disease -- 5. Cell-Mediated Immunity in Renal Disease -- 6. Mechanisms of Proteinuria -- 6.1. Basic Studies -- 6.2. Clinical Aspects of Asymptomatic Proteinuria and/or Hematuria -- 7. Studies of Glomerular Structure and Function -- 7.1. Structural Studies -- 7.2. Tissue Culture -- 7.3. Fundamental Studies -- 8. Clinical Studies of Renal Disease -- 8.1. Nephrotic Syndrome -- 8.2. Multisystem and Hereditary Disease -- 8.3. Hereditary Diseases -- 8.4. Neoplasms and Glomerular Disease -- 8.5. Infection and Glomerular Disease -- 8.6. Drugs and Renal Disease -- 8.7. Miscellaneous Renal Diseases -- References -- 10 Acute Renal Failure and Toxic Nephropathy -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Pathophysiologic Considerations -- 2.1. Experimental Ischemic ARF -- 2.2. Experimental Myohemoglobinuric ARF -- 2.3. Experimental Nephrotoxic ARF -- 3. Clinical Considerations -- 3.1. Diagnosis of ARF -- 3.2. Clinical Course of ARF -- 3.3. Therapy of ARF -- 4. Summary and Conclusion -- References -- 11 The Kidney in Systemic Disease -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Changes in the Volume of Body Fluid Compartments -- 2.1. Congestive Heart Failure -- 2.2. Cirrhosis of the Liver -- 3. Alterations in the Composition of the Blood (Noxious Substances) -- 3.1. Calcium -- 3.2. Rhabdomyolysis-Myoglobinuria -- 3.3. Hemolysisโ{128}{148}Hemoglobinuria -- 3.4. Multiple Myeloma-Light Chain Nephropath


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