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TitleIssues and Reviews in Teratology [electronic resource] : Volume 5 / edited by Harold Kalter
ImprintBoston, MA : Springer US, 1990
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-0521-7
Descript 338p. online resource

SUMMARY

Why Efforts to Expand the Meaning of "Teratogen" Are Unacceptable Disagreement about nomenclature in teratology is not new. Dissent even about the very fabric of the discipline-what congenital malformations consist of-has often been voiced. Time, instead of resolving such diffiยญ culties, has sometimes worsened them. For example, in the past it was agreed that congenital malformaยญ tions are abnormalities of structure present at birth, but differences of opinion concerning where the line between normal and abnormal was to be drawn prevailed. It was obvious that, in order to discover the causes of congenital malformations and cast strategies for their prevention, it would be necessary to have knowledge of the baseline of their frequency, and that this required uniformity of definition of terms. Since malforยญ mations of primary social concern are those having grave outcomes (and are, paradoxically, also the commonest ones), it is logical that such condiยญ tions were the first consideration of investigators and were the defects whose frequency was considered to comprise the required baseline


CONTENT

1 Of Mice and Children: Reminiscences of a Teratogeneticist -- 1. Prenatal and Family History -- 2. Childhood -- 3. The Nuclear Family -- 4. School -- 5. University -- 6. Graduate School -- 7. Graduate Studies -- 8. Royal Canadian Air Force -- 9. Medical School -- 10. Getting Startedโ{128}{148}Medical Genetics -- 11. Medical Genetics Comes of Age -- 12. Genetic Counseling -- 13. The Teratology Connection -- 14. Cleft Palate and Cortisone -- 15. The Multifactorial/Threshold Model -- 16. The Human Connection -- 17. 6-Aminonicotinamide -- 18. Spin-offs -- 19. Cleft Lip -- 20. Studies in Medical Genetics -- 21. The Terato-Clinical Genetics Dilemma -- 22. The Books -- 23. Travels -- 24. International Conferences on Congenital Malformations -- 25. World Health Organization Committee -- 26. Thalidomide -- 27. Saccharin a Teratogen? -- 28. The Anomalad -- 29. Agent Orange -- 30. Sickle-Cell Screening -- 31. Newfoundland -- 32. Personal History -- References -- 2 The Concept of Homology in Comparative Mammalian Teratology -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Homology -- 3. Concept of Phenotype -- 4. Some Issues in Comparative Pathogenesis -- 5. Homologous Common Congenital Malformations -- 6. Searching for Homologous Congenital Defects -- 7. Do Names and Definitions Matter? -- 8. Some Concluding Thoughts -- References -- 3 Short-Term Methods of Assessing Developmental Toxicity Hazard: Status and Critical Evaluation -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Drive to Develop New Methods of Detecting Developmental Hazard Potential -- 3. Goals of in Vitro and Alternative Methods in Developmental Toxicology -- 4. Testing Chemicals of Unknown Embryotoxic Activity -- 5. In Vitro Systems Explored for Prescreening Purposes -- 6. Most Frequently Published in Vitro Prescreening Systems -- 7. Assessment of Proposed in Vitro Tests -- 8. Comments on Validation -- 9. Outlook for the Future: Genetic Toxicology versus Developmental Toxicology. Can One Glean Anything from Genetic Toxicology? -- References -- 4 Twinning in Spontaneous Abortions and Developmental Abnormalities -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Types of Twins -- 3. Spontaneous Abortions -- 4. Developmental Abnormalities -- 5. The Vanishing Twin -- 6. Incidence of Twinning -- References -- 5 Experimental Induction of Dominant Mutations in Mammals by Ionizing Radiations and Chemicals -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Gametogenesis -- 3. Review of Results Obtained for Different Endpoints -- 4. Genetic Risk Estimation -- 5. Special Considerations for Future Study of Induction of Dominant Mutations -- References -- 6 The Teratology and Developmental Toxicity of Cadmium -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Cadmium as a Teratogen -- 3. Cadmium and the Chorioallantoic Placenta -- 4. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium during Pregnancy -- 5. Cadmium Exposure in the Perinatal Period -- 6. Summary -- References -- 7 Epidemiologic Aspects of Down Syndrome: Sex Ratio, Incidence, and Recent Impact of Prenatal Diagnosis -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Sex Ratio in Down Syndrome -- 3. Incidence of Down Syndrome and Effects of Demographic Changes -- 4. Effects of Prenatal Diagnosis on Incidence Rates of Down Syndrome -- 5. Concluding Remarks -- References


Medicine Human genetics Gynecology Developmental biology Medicine & Public Health Gynecology Developmental Biology Human Genetics



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