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TitleFrontiers in Hypertension Research [electronic resource] / edited by John H. Laragh, Fritz R. Bรผhler, Donald W. Seldin
ImprintNew York, NY : Springer New York, 1981
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5899-5
Descript 628 p. online resource

SUMMARY

reached full definition in the 1940s by Kempner diet. The important role of adrenal aldosterone and associates in demonstrating the beneficial efยญ secretion in supporting human hypertension is now fects of a low salt rice diet for treating hypertensive well recognized as are the beneficial effects of patients. It became apparent that the value of rice blockade, especially in low-renin patients who exยญ was wholly related to its sodium content. A rice hibit inappropriate or absolute excesses of aldosteยญ diet, or any other stringent low sodium diet, rone secretion. Further definition of the more subยญ greatly improves or completely corrects the hyperยญ tle participation of aldosterone and of the factors tension of about ̃ or so of all patients with essenยญ that control aldosterone secretion in hypertensive subjects are promising areas for further research. tial hypertension. However, what is often forgotten is that little or no benefit accrues to the remaining THE NERVOUS SYSTEM majority of patients. Parallel studies of animal models has demonยญ Besides the endocrine and excretory functions of strated the amplifying effect of a high sodium diet the kidney and the influence of dietary sodium on blood pressure and vice versa. Strains of rats and of aldosterone secretion, there has been longยญ were developed which are especially sensitive to standing agreement about the important role of the pressor effects of a high sodium diet. In a way, the nervous system in blood pressure control


CONTENT

Frontiers in Hypertension Research: Past, Present and Future Introduction -- Session 1 The Variation in Risk Among Hypertensive Patients: Is the Broad Scale Therapy to Help Only a Few Justifiable? What Pressure Levels Should be Treated? -- Position Paper: The Variation in Risk Among Hypertensive Patients: Is the Broad Scale Therapy to Help Only a Few Justifiable? -- Interpretation of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-Up Program -- Implications of Framingham Data for Treatment of Hypertension: Impact of Other Risk Factors -- Factors Affecting Morbidity and Mortality and the Risk Factor Concept -- Australian Therapeutic Trial in Mild Hypertension -- Treatment of Borderline and Mild Hypertension: The Oslo Study -- Discussion -- Session 2 Dietary Sodium and Human Hypertension -- Position Paper: Dietary Sodium and Human Hypertension -- Sodium Deprivation as an Approach to Hypertension -- Sodium and Other Dietary Factors in Experimental and Human Hypertension: The Japanese Experience -- Metabolic Risks of Diuretic Therapy -- Sodium and Blood Pressure: A New Zealand Study -- Blood Pressure in Sodium Fed Humans -- Adverse Effects of Diuretic Therapy -- Discussion -- Session 3 Sodium Metabolism: The Sodium-Potassium Membrane Pump and Volume Overload Hypertension -- Position Paper: Sodium Metabolism: The Sodium-Potassium Membrane Pump and Volume Overload Hypertension -- Erythrocyte Sodium Extrusion in Primary Hypertension -- Sodium Countertransport and Co-transport in Human Red Cell Membranes -- Cellular Basis of Sodium-Induced Hypertension -- Alteration of Cell Membrane Control over Intracellular Calcium in Essential Hypertension and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats -- A Circulating Sodium Transport Inhibitor in Essential Hypertension -- Discussion -- Session 4 Regulation of Blood Pressure by Prostaglandin-Kinin Interactions -- Position Paper: Regulation of Blood Pressure by Prostaglandin-Kinin Interactions -- Prostaglandins in Human Hypertension: Relationships to Renin, Sodium, and Antihypertensive Drug Action -- Interaction of Kinins and Renal Prostaglandins -- Discussion -- Session 5 The Concept of Whole Body Autoregulation and the Dominant Role of the Kidneys for Long-Term Blood Pressure Regulation -- Position Paper: The Concept of Whole Body Autoregulation and the Dominant Role of the Kidneys for Long-Term Blood Pressure Regulation -- Regulation of Renal Blood Flow by Chloride -- Action of Angiotensin II on Renal Blood Flow and Urinary Sodium Excretion -- Neural Regulation of Renal Function -- Renal Perfusion and Vascular Reactivity in Essential Hypertension -- Does Hypertension Develop Through Long-term Autoregulation -- Discussion -- Session 6 Vasoconstriction and Volume Factors in Renovascular Hypertension -- Position Paper: Vasoconstriction and Volume Factors in Renovascular Hypertension -- Intrarenal Resistance in Experimental Benign and Malignant Hypertension -- Renal Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Essential Hypertension -- Renal Venous Renin Secretory Patterns Before and After Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty: Verification of Analytic Criteria -- Discussion -- Session 7 The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System for Blood Pressure Regulation and for Subdividing Patients to Reveal and Analyze Different Forms of Hypertension -- Position Paper: The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System for Blood Pressure Regulation and for Subdividing Patients to Reveal and Analyze Different Forms of Hypertension -- Artifacts in the Diagnosis of Essential Hypertension -- Low Renin Essential Hypertension: Diminution of Aldosterone Suppression? -- Identifying Renin Participation in Hypertensive Patients -- The Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System in the Maintenance of Blood Pressure -- Discussion -- Session 8 The Control of Renin Release -- Position Paper: The Control of Renin Release -- Humoral Mechanisms of Renin Release -- Intrarenal Renin-angiotensin-sodium Interdependent Renal Vasoconstriction Mechanism Controlling Postclamp Renal Artery Pressure and Renin Release in Chronic One-kidney, One-clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Dog -- Renin Responsiveness to Neural and Nonneural Mediated Stimuli in the Renin Subgroups of Essential Hypertension -- Alpha and Beta Adrenoreceptors and Renin Release -- Discussion -- Session 9 Plasma Prorenin -- Position Paper: Plasma Prorenin -- Renin Purification -- High Molecular-weight Form of Renal Renin and Renin-binding Substance in the Dog -- Brain Renin -- Role of the Brain renin-angiotensin System in Central Mechanisms of Blood Pressure Control -- Vascular Renin -- Discussion -- Session 10 The Sympathetic Nervous System and Hypertension -- Position Paper: The Sympathetic Nervous System and Hypertension -- Effect of Posture, Isometric Hand-grip Exercise and Norepinephrine Infusion in Normal Renin Hypertensive Patients -- Interrelationships between Plasma Norepinephrine and Blood Pressure Response to Norepinephrine Normotension and Hypertension -- Central Noradrenergic Mechanisms in Hypertension: and in Postural Hypertension -- Use of Circulating Catecholamines for the Detection of Autonomic Abnormalities in Human Hypertension -- Sympathetic Nervous System, Catecholamine Receptors, and Hypertension -- Changing Role of Beta- and Alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated Cardiovascular Responses in the Transition from High-cardiac Output into a High-peripheral Resistance Phase in Essential Hypertension -- Discussion -- Session 11 The Brain, Centrally Acting Drugs, the Renin System and Blood Pressure Regulation -- Position Paper: The Brain, Centrally Acting Drugs, the Renin System and Blood Pressure Regulation -- Sodium and Central Nervous System Mechanisms -- Experimental Evidence in Support of a Central Neural Imbalance Hypothesis of Hypertension -- Brain Centers for Pharmacologic Control of the Cardiovascular System -- Central and Peripheral Alpha-adrenoreceptors and the Actions of Clonidine and Methyldopa -- Discussion -- Session 12 Hypertension Mechanisms in Experimental Animals and Their Relevance to Humans -- Position Paper: Hypertension Mechanisms in Experimental Animals and Their Relevance to Humans -- Neurogenic Elements in Rat Primary Hypertension: Differences between Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Milan Hypertensive Strain -- Hypertension and Stroke Mechanisms in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats -- Pressor and Volume Effects of Vasopressin -- Session 13 Hypertension, Vasopressors, and the Susceptibility to Vascular Injury -- Position Paper: Hypertension, Vasoconstriction, and the Causation of Cardiovascular Injury: The Renin-Sodium Profile as an Indicator of Risk -- Vascular Compliance and Pulsatile Flow as Determinants of Vascular Injury -- Endothelial Damage in Hypertension -- Hypertension Induced Vascular Fibrosis and its Reversal by Antihypertensive Drugs -- Hypertension, Vasopressors and the Susceptibility to Vascular Injury: Experimental and Clinical Studies -- Discussion -- Session 14 Antihypertensive Actions of Beta Blockers -- Position Paper: Antihypertensive Actions of Beta Blockers -- Comparison of a Beta-blocker and Converting Enzyme Inhibitor in Two Types of Experimental Hypertension -- Pressor Effect of Beta-adrenergic Blockade and Angiotensin II in Nephrectomized Rats -- Catecholamines as Predictors of Drug Response -- Renin Activity and the Response to Beta-blockade -- Total Peripheral Resistance and Beta-adrenergic Blockade -- Mechanisms of Beta-blockade Hypotension -- Aldosterone: Possible Roles in Sustaining Essential Hypertension and in Determining Response to Antihypertensive Treatment -- Discussion -- Session 15A Differential Features of Beta Adrenoreceptor Blocking Drugs for Therapy -- Position Paper: Differential Features of Beta Adrenoreceptor Blocking Drugs for Therapy -- Session 15B Potentials for Secondary Cardioprotection in Clinical Trials -- Postinfarction Intervention Studies with Propranolol and Atenolol: Problems in Design and Interpretation -- Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction with Beta-adrenoreceptor Blocking Drugsโ{128}{148}Alprenolol, Practolol and Oxprenolol -- The Role of Beta Blockers in Cardioprotection -- Discussion -- Session 16 Converting Enzyme Blockade as a Therapeutic Modality -- Position Paper: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Blockade as a Therapeutic Modality -- Immediate and Delayed Antihypertensive Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition with Captopril -- Late Resistance to Captopril -- Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in the Treatment of Heart Failure -- Summary of Worldwide Captopril Experience in Patients with Severe, Treatment-resistant Hypertension -- The Effect of Captopril on Urinary Kinins and Urinary Kallikrein Activity in Essential Hypertension -- Session 17 Physiologic Effects and Diagnostic Relevance of Acute Converting Enzyme Blockade -- Position Paper: Physiologic Effects and Diagnostic Relevance of Acute Converting Enzyme Blockade -- Does Captopril Decrease Blood Pressure by Mechanisms Other Than Inhibition of Angiotensin II Formation -- The Effects of Intravenous Angiotensin II on the Cardiac Baroreceptor Reflex -- Captopril in Angiotensin-salt Hypertension: A Possible Linkage between Angiotensin, Salt, Vascular Disease and Renomedullary Interstitial Cells -- Effect of Converting Enzyme Inhibition with Teprotide on Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular Reflexes in Normotensive Subjects -- Discussion -- Session 18 New Approaches to Renin System Blockade -- Position Paper: New Approaches to Renin System Blockade -- Studies on Experimental Hypertension Using Blockers of Renin, Converting Enzyme and Angiotensin II -- Active-site Specific Inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme -- Regulation and Properties of Adrenal and Vascular AII Receptors -- Discussion -- Epilogue: After Dinner Science and Friendship -- Opening Remarks -- Percutaneous Transluminal Dilatation of Renal Artery Stenosis -- Closing Remarks


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