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AuthorSeward, James B. author
TitleTwo-Dimensional Echocardiographic Atlas [electronic resource] : Volume 1 Congenital Heart Disease / by James B. Seward, A. Jamil Tajik, William D. Edwards, Donald J. Hagler
ImprintNew York, NY : Springer New York, 1987
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Descript XIV, 598 p. online resource


This atlas is a comprehensive compendium of congeniยญ and two-dimensional echocardiographic examples. The tal cardiac morphology as depicted by tomographic twoยญ examples and experience span all ages and may be used dimensional echocardiography. Anatomic specimens by both pediatric and adult cardiologists. The intended cut in planes of section corresponding to the echocarยญ emphasis is on tomographic morphology and not on diographic views help in the understanding of the echoยญ specialty applications such as fetal, contrast, or Dopยญ cardiographic sections. Composite photographs relate pler echocardiography. different planes of section or cardiac events. Still-frame The tomographic approach to congenital anomalies is photography cannot always adequately relate real-time the imaging modality of the 80s and is applicable to echocardiography, computerized tomography, and imaging events. However, the emphasis of this text is to demonstrate the tomographic morphology and no atยญ magnetic resonance imaging. It is the building block tempt is made to discuss in detail functional or physioยญ from which the expected three-dimensional imaging logic events. techniques of the 1990s will be developed. The wideยญ spread clinical application of these imaging modalities Those performing two-dimensional echocardiography should have a working knowledge of cardiac anatomy has rekindled interest in cardiac anatomy and patholยญ and common congenital aberrations. This is an in-depth ogy, particularly in the evaluation of patients with conยญ tomographic atlas not only of the common congenital genital heart disease


1. Introduction to Tomographic Anatomy -- Cardiac and Abdominal Situs and Cardiac Apex: Definitions and Ultrasonic Determinations -- Definitions -- Index of Figures -- Addendum -- Tomographic Dissection of Cardiac Specimensโ{128}{148}Photography of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms Contrast Echocardiographyโ{128}{148}Doppler Echocardiography -- Orientation to Tomographic Anatomy -- Imaging Cardiovascular Anatomy: A Systematic Tomographic Echocardiographic Approach -- Beginning the Examination Step-by-Step Why Apex Down? -- Pitfalls: Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Anatomic Correlation Variations in โ{128}{156}Standardโ{128}{157} Image Orientationโ{128}{148}Pitfalls of โ{128}{156}Perceived Anatomyโ{128}{157}โ{128}{148}Solution to the Pitfalls Problem -- References -- 2. Extracardiac Anatomy -- Index of Figures -- Abdomen -- Inferior Vena Cava and Tributaries -- Abdominal Aorta and Branches -- Liver and Gallbladder/Hepatic Cysts -- Spleen -- Stomach -- Kidneys -- Urinary Bladder -- Thorax -- Superior Vena Cava and Tributaries -- Thoracic Aorta -- Pulmonary Artery -- Pulmonary Veins -- Thymus Gland -- Coronary Arteries and Veins -- Pericardium -- References -- 3. Atria -- Index of Figures -- Right and Left Atria -- Venous Connections -- Atrial Appendages -- Eustachian Valve -- Atrial Septum -- Normal Anatomy -- Atrial Septal Defects M-mode Echoโ{128}{148}Secundum ASDโ{128}{148}Primum ASDโ{128}{148} Sinus Venosus ASDโ{128}{148}Coronary Sinus ASDโ{128}{148}Common Atrium -- Postoperative ASD -- Lesions Commonly Associated with ASD -- Atrial Septal Aneurysm -- Membranes Within the Atria Pulmonary Venous Membraneโ{128}{148}Supravalvular Mitral Ringโ{128}{148}Cor Triatriatumโ{128}{148}Eustachian Valveโ{128}{148}Cor Triatriatum Dexter -- Juxtapositioned Atrial Appendages -- References -- 4. Atrioventricular Valves -- Index of Figures -- Morphology -- AV Valve Connections -- Malalignment Connection Overrideโ{128}{148}Straddlingโ{128}{148}Criss-Cross -- Univentricular Connection Double Inletโ{128}{148}Single Inletโ{128}{148}Common Inlet -- AV Valve Lesions -- Prolapse -- Accessory Tissue -- Isolated Mitral Cleft -- Congenital Stenosis -- Atrioventricular Canal -- General Features -- Partial AV Canal -- Complete AV Canal -- Transitional AV Canal -- Ebsteinโ{128}{153}s Anomaly -- Cardiac Specimens -- Spectrum -- Uhlโ{128}{153}s Anomaly -- AV Valve Support Apparatus -- Papillary Muscles -- References -- 5. Ventricles -- Index of Figures -- Ventricular Morphology -- Ventricular Relationships Invertedโ{128}{148}Criss-Crossโ{128}{148}Superoinferiorโ{128}{148}Univentricular Heart (see Chapter 4) -- Hypoplastic Ventricle -- Accessory Ventricular Chamber -- Addendum: Cardiomyopathics, Cardiac Tumors, Secondary Myocardial Diseases -- Dilated Cardiomyopathy -- Hypertrophic -- Restrictive -- Spongy Myocardium -- Cardiac Tumors of the Young -- Secondary Muscle Hypertrophy -- References -- 6. Ventricular Septum -- Index of Figures -- Anatomy of Ventricular Septum -- Ventricular Septal Defects -- Types of VSD -- Membranous VSD -- Outflow VSD -- Inflow VSD -- Muscular VSD -- Restrictive VSD -- References -- 7. Semilunar Valves/Great Arteries -- Index of Figures -- Morphology of Semilunar Valves -- Aortic Valve -- Pulmonary Valve -- Pathology -- Subvalvular Sub-Aortic Stenosisโ{128}{148}Sub-Pulmonary Stenosis -- Valvular Aortic Stenosisโ{128}{148}Pulmonary Stenosis -- Supravalvular Aortic Root/Sinusesโ{128}{148}Pulmonary Rootโ{128}{148}Supravalvular Aortic Stenosisโ{128}{148}Supravalvular Pulmonary Stenosis -- Aortopulmonary Communication Ductus Arteriosusโ{128}{148}Aortopulmonary Windowโ{128}{148}Anomalous Origin of Pulmonary Artery from Aortaโ{128}{148}Aortopulmonary collaterals -- Aortic Tunnel -- Aortic Coarctation -- Interrupted Aortic Arch -- Great Artery Origin/Malalignment Double Outlet Right Ventricleโ{128}{148}Double Outlet Left Ventricleโ{128}{148}Complete Transposition of the Great Arteriesโ{128}{148}Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteriesโ{128}{148}Aortic Overrideโ{128}{148}Truncus Arteriosus -- References -- 8. Postoperative Anatomy -- Index of Figures -- Shunts -- Myectomy -- Atrial and Ventricular Septal Defect (Patch) -- Repair/Palliation of Transposition Mustard/Senning Procedureโ{128}{148}Rastelli Procedureโ{128}{148} Damus-Kaye-Stansel Procedureโ{128}{148}Switch Operation -- Atrial Septostomy -- Banding of Pulmonary Artery -- Repair/Palliation of Single Ventricle Glenn Anastomosisโ{128}{148}Septation of Ventricleโ{128}{148}Fontan Procedure -- Conduit -- Valvular Prosthesis -- Postoperative/Intraoperative Contrast Echo -- Valve Incompetence -- Postoperative Complications -- References

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