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TitleEvaluation of Cancer Screening [electronic resource] / edited by Jocelyn Chamberlain, Sue Moss
ImprintLondon : Springer London, 1996
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Descript XI, 192p. online resource


Critically examining the case for and against screening people for early detection of cancer, this book reviews research-based knowledge on the value of early diagnosis for several different cancers ranging from neuroblastoma in infants to prostate cancer in old age. For each cancer site, the natural history of disease progression is reviewed and how the course may be altered by early intervention. Available screening tests are assessed both for their potential benefit and disadvantage. The information presented in this thoughtful review will assist health policy-makers to make decisions on cancer screening. Clinical researchers considering setting up screening studies will be made aware of the pitfalls of evaluation; practitioners and postgraduate students will find a readable introduction to the subject


1. General Principles of Cancer Screening -- Consideration of a Potential Screening Test -- Evaluating the Performance of a Test -- Evaluating the Effectiveness of Screening -- Mathematical Models of Screening -- Selection of High-Risk Groups for Screening -- Promotion of Early Diagnosis -- Ethical Issues -- Genetic Issues -- References -- 2. Screening for Cancer of the Cervix -- Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer -- The Natural History of Cervical Cancer -- The โ{128}{156}Papโ{128}{157} Test -- Evidence for the Effectiveness of Screening -- The Effectiveness of Screening in the UK -- The Treatment of Screen-Detected Lesions -- Cost-Effectiveness of Cervical Screening -- Frequency of Cervical Screening -- Quality Control Issues -- Sensitivity of Screening -- Potential for Automation -- Alternative Tests -- Screening in Developing Countries -- The Role of HPV in Cervical Cancer -- References -- 3. Screening for Cancer of the Breast -- Epidemiology -- Aetiology -- Treatment, Survival and Prognosis of Breast Cancer -- Predisposing Factors -- The Rationale for Screening -- Screening Tests for Breast Cancer -- Effectiveness of Screening in Reducing Mortality -- Effectiveness of Screening Younger Women -- Effectiveness of Breast Self-Examination -- Disadvantages and Costs of Breast Screening -- Conclusions -- References -- 4. Screening for Colorectal Cancer -- Time Trend -- Geographical Variation -- Aetiology and Primary Prevention -- High-Risk Groups for Colorectal Cancer -- Natural History -- Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinomas -- Overall Survival -- The Rationale for Screening -- Screening Methods -- The Acceptability of Screening -- The Effectiveness of Screening -- Disadvantages and Costs -- Conclusions -- References -- 5. Early Detection of Malignant Melanoma of the Skin -- Natural History -- The Screening Test for Malignant Melanoma -- Options for Screening -- Health Education to Promote Self-Screening -- Organised Professional Screening -- Other Aspects of Screening -- Conclusions -- References -- 6. Screening for Ovarian Cancer -- General Requirements -- Candidate Tests: Evidence from Observational Studies -- Tumour Markers -- Improving Performance -- Intervention Studies -- Conclusions -- References -- 7. Screening for Prostate Cancer -- Time Trends and International Differences in Incidence -- Aetiology -- Staging -- Survival -- Natural History -- Determinants of Prognosis -- Screening Tests for Prostate Cancer -- Prevalence of Prostate Cancer at Screening -- Acceptability of Screening -- The Effect of Screening on Prostate Cancer Mortality -- The Potential Disadvantages of Screening for Prostate Cancer -- Conclusions -- References -- 8. Screening for Cancers of other Sites: Lung, Stomach, Oral and Neuroblastoma -- Lung Cancer -- Stomach -- Neuroblastoma -- Oral Cancer -- References -- 9. Psychological Aspects of Cancer Screening -- Research Methodology -- Psychological Effects of Invitation to Screening -- Psychological Effects of a Positive Screening Test -- Psychological Effects in Patients with Screen-Detected Cancer -- Reducing Distress โ{128}{148} Improving Attendance -- Reduction in the Distress Caused by Recall -- Staff Stress -- Self-Screening . -- Selective Screening -- Conclusions and Further Research Needs -- References -- 10. Economic Aspects of Cancer Screening -- The Need for Economic Appraisal -- Methods for Economic Evaluation -- Economic Appraisal of Cancer Screening Programmes -- Some Empirical Findings of Economic Evaluations of Ca -- Screening -- Conclusions -- References

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