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AuthorPettersson, Holger. author
TitleMeasurements in Pediatric Radiology [electronic resource] / by Holger Pettersson, Hans Ringertz
ImprintLondon : Springer London, 1991
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Descript X, 185 p. online resource


A thorough knowledge of normal radiological anatomy is necessary for detection and evaluation of pathological changes. In pediatric radiology, normal anatomy and normal proportions of anatomical structures may differ considerably from the adult, and may vary during growth. Therefore, in pediatric radiology there is a multitude of measurements, that in the individual patient is important, but that for the radiologist is not meaningful or even possible to keep in mind. This holds true both for the experienced pediatric radiologist, and for those who practise pediatric radiology only occasionally. This volume is written for both categories. In the literature, normal values are calculated and presented in many different ways, that are not always easy to compare, or easy to use in daily work. Therefore, we have revised and recalculated the data given by authors, in order to present the statistical upper and lower normal limits as between plus and minus two standard deviations (ยฑ 2SD). This means that about 2% of a normal population will be assessed as abnormally large and around 2% abnormally small with respect to the parameter assessed. In this way, the presentation throughout the book is uniform, and hopefully easy to use. All figures have been redrawn and computed in an attempt to make them as clear as possible


Section 1: The Skull -- SK1 Width of cranial sutures in neonates and infants [radiography] -- SK2 Cranial growth/age [CT] -- SK3 Intracranial volume/age [radiography] -- SK4 Volume of sella turcica/age [radiography] Volume of sella turcica/height [radiography] -- SK5 Interorbital distance/age [radiography] -- SK6 Length of the hard palate in the newborn [radiography] -- SK7 Ventricular size at birth ratios [ultrasound] -- SK8 Diameters of the lateral ventricle in preterm and full-term infants [ultrasound] -- SK9 Pituitary stalk diameter/age [CT] -- Section 2: The Spine -- SP1 Transverse diameter of foramen occipitale magnum/age [radiography] -- SP2 Sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal/age [radiography] Sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal/height [radiography] -- SP3 Sagittal diameter of the cervical spinal canal in infants [radiography] -- SP4 Sagittal diameter of the lumbar spinal canal/age [radiography] -- SP5 Interpeduncular distance/age [radiography] -- SP6 Size of vertebral body and intervertebral disc/age [radiography] -- SP7 Spinal length at birth/gestational age [radiography] -- SP8 Thoracic kyphosis/age [radiography] -- SP9 Diameter of the spinal cord [conventional myelography] -- SP10 Diameter of the spinal cord [CT and myelography] -- Section 3: Pelvis and Hips -- PH1 Iliac angle and iliac index/age [radiography] -- PH2 Acetabular angle/age [radiography] -- PH3 Acetabular coverage of the femoral head/age [radiography] -- PH4 Femoral anteversion/age [CT] -- PH5 Shaft/neck angle of the femur/age [radiography] -- PH6 Appearance and size of femoral head/age [radiography] -- PH7 Angle measurements of the hip in infants [ultrasound] -- Section 4: The Extremities -- EX1 Carpal length [radiography] -- EX2 Carpal angle/age [radiography] -- EX3 Metacarpal index/age [radiography] -- EX4 Metacarpophalangeal length/age [radiography] -- EX5 Dimensions of distal femoral epiphysis [radiography] -- EX6 Tibiofemoral and metaphysealโ{128}{148}diaphyseal angle/age [radiography] -- EX7 Angle measurements of the foot/age [radiography] -- EX8 Muscle cylinder ratio in infancy [radiography] -- EX9 Limb bone length ratios/age [radiography] -- EX10 Quadriceps muscle thickness and subcutaneous tissue thickness/age [ultrasound] -- Section 5: Bone Mineral Contents -- BM1 Cortical metacarpal thickness/age [radiography] -- BM2 Cortical mass in neonates [radiography] -- BM3 Quantitative spinal mineral analysis [CT] -- BM4 Bone mineral content at birth [single photon absorptiometry] -- BM5 Bone mineral content/age [single photon absorptiometry] -- Section 6: The Respiratory Tract -- RT1 Adenoidal size/age [radiography] -- RT2 Sagittal diameter of trachea in the newborn [radiography] -- RT3 Transverse tracheal diameter/age [radiography] -- RT4 Tracheal dimensions/age [CT] -- RT5 Thymus dimensions/age [CT] -- RT6 The width of the paratracheal stripe [radiography] -- Section 7: The Cardiovascular System -- CV1 Cardiac volume according to body surface area [radiography] -- CV2 Heart volume in the neonate/weight and age [radiography] -- CV3 Cardiothoracic ratio in newborn [radiography] -- CV4 Left ventricular end diastolic diameter/weight [sonography] -- CV5 Diameter of pulmonary veins/height [angiocardiography] -- CV6 Diameter of the right descending pulmonary artery/probability of shunt [radiography] -- CV7 Diameter of the abdominal aorta at different levels/body surface area [radiography] -- Section 8: The Abdomen -- AB1 Liver size/height/age [radiography] -- AB2 Size of liver and spleen/age and weight [scintigraphy] -- AB3 Size of liver and spleen/body weight and height [ultrasound] -- AB4 Size of gallbladder and biliary tract [ultrasound] -- AB5 Width of common bile duct/age [cholangiography] -- AB6 Muscle dimensions of the pylorus [ultrasound] -- AB7 Diameter of gas filled bowel loops in infants [radiography] -- AB8 Diameter of small bowel/age [radiography] -- AB9 Retrorectal soft tissue space [radiography] -- Section 9: The Urinary Tract -- UT1 Renal length/L1โ{128}{147}L3 [radiography] Renal parenchymal area/L1โ{128}{147}L3 [radiography] Renal parenchymal thickness/L1โ{128}{147}L3 [radiography] -- UT2 Renal length, area and parenchymal thickness: ratio right/left kidney [radiography] -- UT3 Renal length/age [radiography] -- UT4 Renal length/age [ultrasound] -- UT5 Renal length in neonates [ultrasound] -- UT6 Renal length/body weight in premature infants [ultrasound] -- UT7 Renal volume/body weight [ultrasound] -- UT8 Renal echogenicity/age [ultrasound] -- UT9 Skin-to-kidney distance/weight [CT (scintigraphy)] -- UT10 Ureteral submucosal tunnel length/height [ultrasound] Ureteral submucosal tunnel length/age [ultrasound] -- UT11 Ureteral diameter/L1โ{128}{147}L3 [radiography] Ureteral diameter/age [radiography] -- UT12 Bladder capacity/L1โ{128}{147}L3 [radiography] Bladder proportions [radiography] -- UT13 Bladder wall thickness [ultrasound] -- UT14 Adrenal size/age: newborn [ultrasound] -- Appendices -- Appendix I. Nomogram -- Appendix II. Statistical considerations

Medicine Radiology Pediatrics Pediatric surgery Medicine & Public Health Imaging / Radiology Pediatrics Pediatric Surgery


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