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AuthorPyrah, Leslie N. author
TitleRenal Calculus [electronic resource] / by Leslie N. Pyrah
ImprintBerlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1979
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Descript XVI, 370 p. online resource


Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long and wide experience of the surgery of calculous disease and gives us in this volume something of the wisdom that he has gained thereby, but he has also been a pioneer in the setting up of a research department largely concerned with the investigation of this complex group of disorders, so that he is able to present in terms readily intelligible to the general medical reader the results of extensive biochemical investigation in this area


1: Epidemiology of Urolithiasis -- I. Early Cases of Vesical Calculus -- II. Ethnic Considerations -- III. Climate -- IV. Occupation -- V. Incidence of Stone in Countries with Different Degrees of Economic Development -- VI. The Stone Wave in Central Europe -- References -- 2: Pathology of the Stone-Bearing Kidney -- I. Theories of Renal Stone Formation -- II. General Structure of Renal Calculi -- III. Components of Renal Calculi -- IV. Morbid Anatomy -- References -- 3: Intrarenal, Pararenal and Ureteric Disorders Complicated by Renal Calculi and Calcification -- I. Renal and Ureteric Stone and Obstructive Conditions in the Urinary Tract -- II. Renal Calculi and Cystic Conditions of the Kidney -- III. Renal and Ureteric Calculi Associated with Other Congenital Anomalies of the Urinary Tract -- IV. Metaplastic Conditions and Tumours of the Kidney, the Ureter, and Calculi -- V. Renal Tubular Acidosis -- VI. Infective Conditions of the Kidney and Calculous Disease -- References -- 4: Some Extrarenal Diseases Associated with Renal Stone or Nephrocalcinosis -- I. Primary Hyperparathyroidism -- II. Immobilization Osteoporosis and Recumbency Urolithiasis -- III. Diseases of Other Ductless Glands -- IV. Sarcoidosis -- V. Pagetโ{128}{153}s Disease -- VI. Myelomatosis -- VII. Wilsonโ{128}{153}s Disease -- VIII. Ureterocolic Anastomosis, Ileal Ureterostomy and Cutaneous Ureterostomy -- IX. Renal Calculi Complicating Renal Transplants -- References -- 5: Renal Calculi and Nephrocalcinosis Contributed to by Ingestion of Certain Substances: Environmental Calculosis -- I. Silicate Calculi -- II. The Sulphonamides -- III. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Phenacetin Addiction -- IV. Nephrolithiasis and Chronic Peptic Ulcer -- V. Chronic Glomerulonephritis and Excessive Ingestion of Milk -- VI. Beryllium Poisoning -- VII. Cadmium Poisoning -- VII. Food Emulsifiers -- References -- 6: Levels of the Principal Crystalloids in the Urine of Patients with Calcium-Containing Calculi -- I. Urinary Calcium -- II. Urinary Phosphate -- III. Urinary Oxalate -- IV. Urinary Crystalluria -- References -- 7: Primary Hyperoxaluria and Related Conditions -- I. Primary Hyperoxaluria -- II. Related Conditions -- References -- 8: Idiopathic Hypercalciuria -- I. Clinical Features and Diagnosis -- II. Pathogenesis -- III. Treatment: Measures to Reduce Urinary Calcium -- References -- 9: Chemical Substances in Urine Promoting or Preventing Renal Stone -- I. Some Chemical Substances and Their Relation to Renal Stone Formation -- II. Inhibitors of Calcification -- References -- 10: Clinical Picture of Renal and Ureteric Calculus -- I. Etiological Factors -- II. Clinical Course of Renal Stone Relative to Time -- III. Clinical Course of Renal Stone and Associated Factors -- IV. Clinical Symptoms of Renal and Ureteric Calculi -- V. Clinical Differential Diagnosis of Renal and Ureteric Calculi -- VI. Investigation -- VII. Urolithiasis in Children -- VIII. Renal and Ureteric Calculus in Pregnancy -- References -- 11: Some General Considerations in the Surgical Treatment of Renal and Ureteric Stone -- I. Blood Supply of the Kidney -- II. Amount of Renal Tissue Needed to Sustain Life -- III. Compensatory Hypertrophy of the Kidney Following Nephrectomy -- IV. Recovery of Function After Ureteric Obstruction -- V. Prevention of Infection -- VI. Temporary Control of Bleeding -- VII. Cooling Techniques -- VIII. Radiography of the Exposed Kidney -- IX. Closure of the Wound -- References -- 12: The Conservative Treatment of Renal and Ureteric Calculi -- I. Conservative Treatment -- II. Attempted Dissolution of Renal Calculi -- III. Perureteral Instrumental Methods for the Treatment of Ureteric Stone -- References -- 13: Operative Treatment of Renal and Ureteric Calculi -- I. Simple Pyelolithotomy and Its Variants -- II. Nephrolithotomy -- III. Partial Nephrectomy -- IV. Ureterolithotomy -- V. Nephrectomy and Nephroureterectomy -- VI. Nephrostomy and Pyelostomy for Calculous Pyonephrosis -- References -- 14: Special Groups of Cases of Stone and Their Treatment -- I. Treatment of Bilateral Renal and Ureteric Calculi -- II. Treatment of Stone in a Solitary Kidney -- III. Secondary Operations for Renal and Ureteric Calculi -- IV. Recurrence of Calcium-Containing Stone in the Upper Urinary Tract After Operation -- V. Serious Cases of Renal Calculous Disease -- VI. Treatment of Infection in the Calculous Urinary Tract -- VII. Medical Treatment of Calcium Phosphate-Containing Calculi -- VIII. Earlier Non-surgical Measures -- References -- 15: Uric Acid Calculi -- I. Pathology -- II. Clinical Picture -- III. Investigation -- IV. Treatment -- References -- 16: Cystinuria and Cystine Lithiasis -- I. Incidence of Cystinuria -- II. Cystinuria and Cystine Urolithiasis in Childhood -- III. Pathology -- IV. Pathogenesis and Genetics of Cystinuria -- V. Clinical Picture -- VI. Treatment -- VII. Cystinuria in Animals -- References -- 17: Xanthine Calculi and Xanthinuria -- I. Xanthinuria and Xanthine Oxidase -- II. Xanthine Stone -- III. Clinical Picture -- IV. Genetic Considerations -- V. Treatment -- References

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