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TitleThe New Theory of Reference [electronic resource] : Kripke, Marcus, and Its Origins / edited by Paul W. Humphreys, James H. Fetzer
ImprintDordrecht : Springer Netherlands : Imprint: Springer, 1998
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Descript XIII, 290 p. online resource


On January 20th, 22nd, and 29th, 1970 Saul Kripke delivered three lectures at Princeton University. They produced something of a sensation. In the lectures he argued, amongst other things, that many names in ordinary language referred to objects directly rather than by means of associated descriptions; that causal chains from language user to language user were an important mechanism for preserving reference; that there were necessary a posteriori and contingent a priori truths; that identity relations between rigid designators were necessary; and argued, more tentatively, that materialist identity theories in the philosophy of mind were suspect. Interspersed with this was a considerยญ able amount of material on natural kind terms and essentialism. As a result of these lectures and a related 1971 paper, 'Identity and Necessity' (Kripke [1971]), talk of rigid designators, Hesperus and Phosphorus, meter bars, gold and H 0, and suchlike quickly became commonplace in philosophical circles 2 and when the lectures were published under the title Naming and Necessity in the collection The Semantics of Natural Language (Davidson and Harman l [1972]), that volume became the biggest seller in the Reidel (later Kluwer) list. The cluster of theses surrounding the idea that a relation of direct reference 2 exists between names and their referents is now frequently referred to as 'The 3 New Theory of Reference'


I: The APA Exchange -- 1. Marcus, Kripke, and the Origin of the New Theory of Reference -- 2. Revisionism about Reference: A Reply to Smith -- 3. Marcus and the New Theory of Reference: A Reply to Scott Soames -- II: Replies -- 4. More Revisionism about Reference -- 5. Marcus, Kripke, and Names -- 6. How Not to Write History of Philosophy: A Case Study -- 7. Direct, Rigid Designation and A Posteriori Necessity: A History and Critique -- III: Historical Origins -- 8. Referential Opacity and Modal Logic, ยงยง16-19 -- 9. An Exposition and Development of Kangerโ{128}{153}s Early Semantics for Modal Logic -- 10. A More Comprehensive History of the New Theory of Reference -- Name Index

Philosophy Epistemology Logic Metaphysics Language and languages -- Philosophy Philosophy Philosophy of Language Epistemology Logic Metaphysics


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