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AuthorBuckland, S. T. author
TitleDistance Sampling [electronic resource] : Estimating abundance of biological populations / by S. T. Buckland, D. R. Anderson, K. P. Burnham, J. L. Laake
ImprintDordrecht : Springer Netherlands : Imprint: Springer, 1993
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1574-2
Descript XII, 446 p. 36 illus. online resource

SUMMARY

one can choose a point instead and measure the radial distances of the animals detected. It is very appropriate that the leading exponents in this field have come together to produce an authoritative description on 'how to do it'. They bring with them many years of experience in this research area. This book is a must for all those involved in estimating animal abundance as the methods can be used for such a wide variety of animal species including birds and marine mammals. The methods also apply to clusters of animals such as schools of dolphins and to animal signs. The beauty of such methods lies in the fact that not every animal has to be seen when a population is investigated. At the heart of the methodology is a 'detectability' function which is estimated in some robust fashion from the distances to the animals actually seen. Many species are not always visible and may be detected by the sounds they make or by being flushed out into the open. Clearly animals can have widely different behaviour patterns so that different models will be needed for different situations. This book provides a tool box of such methods with a computer package which helps the researcher to select the right tool for each occasion. The authors have a reputation for being very thorough and, typically, they endeavour to cover every conceivable situation that might be encountered in the field


CONTENT

1 Introductory concepts -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Range of applications -- 1.3 Types of data -- 1.4 Known constants and parameters -- 1.5 Assumptions -- 1.6 Fundamental concept -- 1.7 Detection -- 1.8 History of methods -- 1.9 Program DISTANCE -- 2 Assumptions and modelling philosophy -- 2.1 Assumptions -- 2.2 Fundamental models -- 2.3 Philosophy and strategy -- 2.4 Robust models -- 2.5 Some analysis guidelines -- 3 Statistical theory -- 3.1 General formula -- 3.2 Hazard-rate modelling of the detection process -- 3.3 The key function formulation for distance data -- 3.4 Maximum likelihood methods -- 3.5 Choice of model -- 3.6 Estimation for clustered populations -- 3.7 Density, variance and interval estimation -- 3.8 Stratification and covariates -- 4 Line transects -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Example data -- 4.3 Truncation -- 4.4 Estimating the variance in sample size -- 4.5 Analysis of grouped or ungrouped data -- 4.6 Model selection -- 4.7 Estimation of density and measures of precision -- 4.8 Estimation when the objects are in clusters -- 4.9 Assumptions -- 4.10 Summary -- 5 Point transects -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Example data -- 5.3 Truncation -- 5.4 Estimating the variance in sample size -- 5.5 Analysis of grouped or ungrouped data -- 5.6 Model selection -- 5.7 Estimation of density and measures of precision -- 5.8 Estimation when the objects are in clusters -- 5.9 Assumptions -- 5.10 Summary -- 6 Extensions and related work -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Other models -- 6.3 Modelling variation in encounter rate and cluster size -- 6.4 Estimation of the probability of detection on the line or point -- 6.5 On the concept of detection search effort -- 6.6 Fixed versus random sample size -- 6.7 Efficient simulation of distance data -- 6.8 Thoughts about a full likelihood approach -- 6.9 Distance sampling in three dimensions -- 6.10 Cue counting -- 6.11 Trapping webs -- 6.12 Migration counts -- 6.13 Point-to-object and nearest neighbour methods -- 7 Study design and field methods -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Survey design -- 7.3 Searching behaviour -- 7.4 Measurements -- 7.5 Training observers -- 7.6 Field methods for mobile objects -- 7.7 Field methods when detection on the centerline is not certain -- 7.8 Field comparisons between line transects, point transects and mapping censuses -- 7.9 Summary -- 8 Illustrative examples -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Lake Huron brick data -- 8.3 Wooden stake data -- 8.4 Studies of nest density -- 8.5 Fin whale abundance in the North Atlantic -- 8.6 Use of tuna vessel observer data to assess trends in abundance of dolphins -- 8.7 House wren densities in South Platte River bottomland -- 8.8 Songbird surveys in Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge -- 8.9 Assessing the effects of habitat on density -- Appendix A List of common and scientific names cited -- Appendix B Notation and abbreviations, and their definitions


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