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TitleBiocatalysis [electronic resource] / edited by Daniel A. Abramowicz
ImprintDordrecht : Springer Netherlands : Imprint: Springer, 1990
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-9124-4
Descript XXVIII, 400 p. 24 illus. online resource

SUMMARY

The action of enzymes fascinated mankind long before they were recยญ ognized for the complex chemicals that they are. The first application of these remarkable compounds to produce ethanol by fermentation is lost to antiquity. Payer and Persoz (Ann. Chim. Phys. , 53, 73 (1833ii)) appear to have provided the first step toward understanding this comยญ plex area when they reported the isolation of diastase in 1833. These workers showed that diastase could catalyze the hydrolysis of starches to sugars. Somewhat earlier Kirchhoff (Schwigger's Journal, 4, 108 (1812)) had shown that a small amount of dilute acid could hydrolyze a seemingly endless amount of starch to sugars. The genius of Berzelius recognized the commonality of these two observations in connection with a few other isolated observations and in 1834 coined the term catalysis to describe such actions. Professor Leibig was one of the giants of the chemical world in 1840. In addition to his own work, Liebig was training the world's next generation of chemists in his laboratory in Giessen. This cadre of chemists were very impressed by the master teacher so that is it only natural that Liebig's views should dominate with this next generation of chemists. Leibig was, in the 1830s and 1840s, developing his mastery of agricultural chemistry. The mechanism of putrefication was of great concern to Leibig, and he turned to the newly defined area of catalysis for an explanation


CONTENT

1 The Archeology of Enzymology -- Early Highspots -- Confession of a Peroxidase Addict -- Gastric Juice: A Hearty Brew -- What Is Catalysis? -- Anticipating an Enzyme -- Some Early Enzyme Patents -- Water-Insoluble Enzymes Can Work Too -- Chemical Modification of Enzymes -- Enzymes in Organic Solvents Can Go Either Way -- Publication Velocity: A Survival Factor -- Enzyme Specificity: An Intellectual Caldron -- Developments over Time -- An Example of Serendipity in Scientific Discovery -- Time and the Cytochromes: Termination and Resuscitation -- Effect of Temperature on Fat Unsaturation -- Conclusions -- 2 Synthesis of Polyesters by Lipase-Catalyzed Polycondensation in Organic Media -- Oligomer and Polymer Synthesis with Hydrolases -- Formation of [AA-BB]x Polyesters by Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification -- Enzymatic Synthesis of an Optically Active Polyester -- Conclusions -- 3 Regiospecific Hydroxylation of Biphenyl and Analogs by Aspergillus parasiticus -- Materials and Methods -- Results and Discussions -- Conclusions -- 4 Simple Carbohydrates as Starting Materials in Organic Synthesis: A Comparison of Strategies -- Chemical Synthesis -- Immobilized Enzyme Synthesis -- Microbial Whole Cell Synthesis -- Final Results -- 5 The Production of Amino Acids by Transamination -- Mechanism of Transamination 116 Advantages and Disadvantages of Transaminases for Biocatalytic Reactions -- Driving the Reaction to Completion 120 Production of Amino Acids Using the Aspartic Transaminase from E. Coli -- Immobilization of the Transaminase -- Production of Branched-Chain l-Amino Acids -- Enzyme Production -- Conclusion -- 6 A Biocatalytic Approach to Vitamin C Production: Metabolic Pathway Engineering of Erwinia herbicola -- Historical Perspective -- Recombinant Strategy -- Development of the Recombinant Bacterial Strain -- Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Recombinant Strains -- Conclusions -- 7 Chiral Synthons by Biocatalysis -- Background of Dehalogenase Enzymes -- Dehalogenase Technology -- 8 Enzymatic Resolution of Ibuprofen in a Multiphase Membrane Reactor -- Enzyme-Substrate Screening -- Multiphase Membrane Bioreactor-Theory of Operation -- Results and Discussion -- Conclusions -- 9 Microbial Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds: A Way to Pheromone Synthesis -- What Is a Pheromone? -- Methodology -- Chiral Alcohols or Derivatives -- Chiral Ketones -- Conclusion -- 10 Resolution of Binaphthols and Spirobiindanols Using Pancreas Extracts -- Results -- Discussion -- Experimental Section -- 11 Chiral Synthons by New Oxidoreductases and Methodologies -- What Is Meant by โ{128}{156}Newโ{128}{157} Enzymes and Methodologies? -- Practical Aspects -- Regeneration of Viologens -- Hydrogenations with C. Tyrobutyricum Containing Hydrogenase and Enoate Reductase -- 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Viologen Oxidoreductase and Its Use for the Preparation of (2R)-Hydroxycarboxylates -- Dehydrogenation of (2R)-Hydroxycarboxylates from Racemic Mixtures for the Preparation of (2S)-Hydroxycarboxylates -- Preparation of Chiral Deuterated Compounds -- Reductions of Hydroxylamines -- Example of a Viologen-Dependent Pyridine Nucleotide Oxidoreductase -- Carboxylate Reduction with Clostridia and Carbon Monoxide -- 12 Enzymes from Extreme Environments -- Protein Stability -- Thermostable Enzymes -- Recombinant Thermostable Enzymes -- Future Applications -- 13 Biocatalysis in Anaerobic Extremophiles -- Acidoanaerobes -- Haloanaerobes -- Thermoanaerobes -- Alcohol Dehydrogenase -- Amylases -- Xylose (Glucose) Isomerase -- Summary -- 14 Large-Scale Bioconversion of Nitriles into Useful Amides and Acids -- Biotechnical Potential of Nitrile Metabolism -- Production of Acrylamide with Pseudomonas Chlororaphis B23 Nitrile Hydratase -- Characterization and Cofactors of Iron-Containing Nitrile Hydratase -- Occurrence of a Cobalt-Induced and Cobalt-Containing Nitrile Hydratase in Rhodococcus Rhodochorous J1 -- Production of Nicotinamide with R. Rhodochrous J1 Nitrile Hydratase -- Production of Nicotinic Acid with R. Rhodochrous J1 Nitrile -- 15 Aldolases in Organic Synthesis -- Fructose-1,6-Diphosphate Aldolase (FDP Aldolase) -- Synthesis -- Thermodynamically Controlled C-C Bond Formation -- N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Aldolase (Neu5Ac Aldolase) -- 16 Two-Liquid Phase Biocatalysis: Reactor Design -- Nomenclature -- Experimental Determination of Reactor Design Parameters -- Example: Benzyl Acetate Hydrolysis by Pig Liver Esterase -- Optimal Reactor Operation -- Reactor Design and Scale-Up -- Process Design -- Conclusions -- 17 Enzymes That Do Not Work in Organic Solvents: Too Polar Substrates Give Too Tight Enzyme-Product Complexes -- Discussion


Chemistry Physical chemistry Polymers Biochemistry Chemistry Polymer Sciences Biochemistry general Physical Chemistry



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