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AuthorTung, William L. author
TitleThe Political Institutions of Modern China [electronic resource] / by William L. Tung
ImprintDordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 1968
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Descript XIV, 408 p. online resource


This book is prepared primarily for students who are interested in studying the constitutional development and government structure of twentieth-century China. Since the emergence of the Chinese constiยญ tutional movement at the end of the nineteenth century, political institutions in China have undergone constant changes. The first four chapters treat of constitutional development and government systems from the latter part of the Ch'ing dynasty to the re-unification of China by the Nationalist Party in 1928. The other eight chapters deal with the policies, programs, and institutions of the Nationalist and Commuยญ nist governments up to 1962. While treatises on various subjects have been consulted, the sources of this book are chiefly based on the official documents from the collections as indicated in the bibliography. Materials in the first few chapters are partly drawn from my previous works on government and politics in China. Because of the immense scope of the subject and the intricacy of the problems involved, this work is not intended to be exhaustive, but is rather a brief description and discussion of each topic under consideration. As there are many valuable works on China in general as well as on her history and interยญ national relations, I have tried not to cover what has already been dealt with by others. In my presentation of facts and views, I have endeavored to be as objective as possible, personal political convictions notwithstanding


I. From Autocracy to Democracy: Political Institutions at the End of the Chโ{128}{153}ing Dynasty -- 1. Transformation from Absolute to Constitutional Monarchy -- 2. Causes of the Constitutional Movement -- 3. Preparation for Constitutionalism -- 4. The Principles of Constitution, September 22, 1908 -- 5. The National Legislative Council (Tse-cheng Yuan) -- 6. The Provincial Assembly (Tse-I Chu) -- 7. The Beginning of Local Self-Government -- 8. The Revolution and the Nineteen Articles of November 3, 1911 -- II. Democracy in Experiment: Political Institutions During the Early Republican Period -- 1. Preparations for a Provisional Government -- 2. Analysis of the Organic Law of the Provisional Government -- 3. Inauguration of the Provisional Government at Nanking -- 4. The Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, March 11, 1912 -- 5. The Change of the Provisional Presidency and the Seat of Government -- 6. The Establishment of Parliament -- 7. The Drafting of the Constitution and the Election of President -- 8. The Judicial System of the New Republic -- 9. The Local Government System -- III. Monarchism vs. Republicanism: Political institutions Under the Dictatorship of Yรผan Shih-Kโ{128}{153}ai -- 1. Yรผan Shih-kโ{128}{153}ai vs. Constitutional Democracy -- 2. Yรผan Shih-kโ{128}{153}ai and the Constitutional Compact of 1914 -- 3. The Reorganized National Government Under Yรผan Shih-kโ{128}{153}ai -- 4. The Local Government System Under Yรผan Shih-kโ{128}{153}ai -- 5. The Rise and Fall of Yรผanโ{128}{153}s Monarchial Movement -- IV. Split Between the North and the South: Political Institutions During the Period of Internal Dissensions -- 1. Developments under the Regime in Peking -- 2. The New Parliament and the New Constitutional Draft -- 3. Parliamentโ{128}{153}s Second Restoration and its Adoption of the 1923 Constitution -- 4. The Constitution-Protecting Government in the Southwest -- 5. The Peking Government Under Provisional Chief Executive Tuan -- 6. The Local Government System -- V. The Nationalist Party in Power: Unification of China Under Kuomintang Programs -- 1. The Reorganization of the Nationalist Party in 1924 -- 2. Basic Principles and Programs of the Nationalist Party -- 3. The Northern Expedition and the Unification of China -- 4. The Beginning of Political Tutelage -- VI. The Five-Power Constitution at Work: Political Institutions During the Period of Political Tutelage -- 1. The National Government Before 1928 -- 2. The National Government Since 1928 -- 3. The National Peopleโ{128}{153}s Convention and the Promulgation of the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China for the Period of Political Tutelage -- 4. Nationalist Efforts to Carry out Party Principles and Programs -- 5. The Preparation for Constitutional Rule in China -- 6. The Local Government System During the Period of Political Tutelage -- VII. Communism Versus Nationalism: The Chinese Communist Party and Soviet Regimes (1921โ{128}{147}1945) -- 1. The Formation of Communist Organizations in China -- 2. The First United Front of the Nationalists and Communists -- 3. Armed Uprisings and the Change of Leadership -- 4. The Establishment of Soviet Regimes in China -- 5. The Second United Front and Expansion of the Communist Regimes -- VIII. China at War: Political Institutions During the Period of the Sino-Japanese War -- 1. The Hostilities Between China and Japan -- 2. The Formal Establishment of Chiang Kai-shekโ{128}{153}s Leadership -- 3. Wartime Party Alignments -- 4. The Supreme National Defense Council โ{128}{148} The Highest Organ of Wartime China -- 5. The Triple-linked Administrative System -- 6. The Wartime National Government -- 7. The Peopleโ{128}{153}s Political Council -- 8. The Wartime Local Government -- 9. The Local Representative Bodies -- IX. From the Mainland to Taiwan (Formosa): Political Institutions during the Postwar Period -- 1. Peace Negotiations Through the Political Consultative Conference -- 2. The Convocation of the National Assembly and the Constitution of 1946 -- 3. The Central and Local Governments Under the Constitution of 1946 -- 4. The First Session of the First National Assembly -- 5. The Nationalist Debacle and Retreat to Taiwan -- 6. The National Government in Taiwan -- 7. The Local Government System in Taiwan -- 8. Taiwan Today -- X. The Communist Party in Power: Maoโ{128}{153}s Political Thought and the Party Organization -- 1. On the Road to Victory -- 2. The Political Thought and Strategy of Mao Tse-tung -- 3. The Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party and its Guiding Principles -- 4. The Organization and Functions of the Communist Party -- 5. The Communist Youth League -- 6. The Communist Relationship with Minor Political Parties and Mass Organizations -- XI. Fundamental Laws of the Peopleโ{128}{153}s Republic: From the Common Program to the Constitution of 1954 -- 1. The Chinese Peopleโ{128}{153}s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) -- 2. The Common Program of 1949 in the Nature of a Provisional Constitution -- 3. The Central Government System, 1949โ{128}{147}1954 -- 4. The Local Government System, 1949โ{128}{147}1954 -- 5. The Adoption of the Constitution by the National Peopleโ{128}{153}s Congress -- 6. General Principles of the Constitution of 1954 -- XII. The Government of โ{128}{156}Democratic Centralismโ{128}{157}: Political Institutions under the Constitution of 1954 -- 1. The Present System of Government -- 2. The National Peopleโ{128}{153}s Congress -- 3. The Head of the State -- 4. The State Council -- 5. The Peopleโ{128}{153}s Courts and Procuratorates -- 6. Local Peopleโ{128}{153}s Congresses and Councils -- 7. Self-Government Organs of National Autonomous Areas -- 8. The Communist Government in Action -- Appendices

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