This research is a qualitative research. The objectives are 1) to study the evolution of Russian education from the Russian empire to the Soviet time 2) to study educational reform in the Russian Federation, and to analyze the result of educational reform in the post-Soviet period. In this research, the information on the evolution of Russian education from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Russian Federation during 1991-2008 has been gathered from published documents that include articles and books. The analysis focuses on educational reform in the post-Soviet period to explore what were the main factors determining the educational reform of the post-Soviet period and how it responded to changes in the economic and democratic systems in this period. The research findings show that educational reform of the Russian Federation in the post-Soviet period was meant to strengthen the state. Society became freer than in the Soviet time. Education was an important factor contributing to the people’s knowledge about fundamental rights and freedoms in a democratic system. In addition, the government provided the people with greater access to news and other sources of information. This was different from the situation in the Soviet time when the government limited access to news and information. In the economic realm of the state, educational reform enabled the people to earn better living by giving them opportunities to choose a job. There were main important factors, which influenced the educational reform of the Russian Federation in the post-Soviet period. The main important factors were leaders’ vision and the global trends at that time. However, the educational reform in the Russian Federation from the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union to 2008 did not achieve all its objectives due to problems, such as inefficient management and finance, particularly in schools and institutions in rural areas.