Changes in urban Bangkok 1855-1909 : the impact of the settlement of the British and their subjects / Malinee Khumsupha = การเปลี่ยนแปลงกรุงเทพฯ พ.ศ. 2398-2452 : ผลกระทบจากการตั้งถิ่นฐานของชาวอังกฤษและคนในบังคับ
The Bowring Treaty came into effect in 1855. Its provisions established several conditions for the settlement of British and their subjects in Bangkok; privileged judicial status, advantages regarding settlement and especially fixed taxation. These conditions led to three significant changes in Bangkok. Firstly, landscape changes; the British and their subjects were located in specific geographically recognizable communities. The government and noble investors opened land for sale and the state issued title-deeds leading to the permanent settlement of new settlers. Secondly, the British subjects significantly stimulated the economy of the state and the economy of urban Bangkok. Large companies owned by the British reaped benefits assisted by Asiatic subjects. These subjects also were involved in business i.e. as retailers or compradors. Some of British subjects learned and became experienced in British companies including accumulation their own capital. They separated and established their own businesses in Bangkok after that. Thirdly, the impact of new settlers effected some service changes such as revenue, security and surveillance, public work, public health and sanitation. Some departments were reformed and created. British and their subjects also played crucial roles in the development of several principle departments and ministries in Bangkok, both as advisors and officials such as the Police Department, Royal Survey Department, Land Register Office and the Ministry of Finance. Most importantly, the settlement of these British subjects in foreign community introduced the new term of local self-government “Municipality”. This new administrative unit is developed to function in provincial unit of Siam known as Sukhapiban (สุขาภิบาล) significantly thereafter.