The objectives of this thesis are to apply the Value Stream Mapping and evaluate the operation performance in order to find the improvement in supply chain management of cut flower orchid export from Thailand to Japan. The information got from an in-depth interview from the orchid exporters, freight forwarders and also observation and record from real place. The research result found that the main problems in export supply chain are low prices of cut flower orchid for some seasons, exchange rate fluctuation, unpredictable traffic in Bangkok, containing capacity, cut flower orchid quality, and cannot catch-up the flight. The activities can be divided into 27 activities with the total time of 50.99 hours. There were VA Activities of 88.66%, NVA Activities of 2.10% and NNVA activities of 9.24. The processes that need improvement are the storage of cut flower orchid and the waiting time for shipping document process. The comparison with main competitors which are Malaysia and Singapore found that the operation process that competitors are better than Thailand are the contaminant control process, transportation to Airport process, Phytosanitary Certificate process, transportation time between producer to packaging, and quality control process. The researcher suggested that there should be a standard export price for the whole year, reduce time for Phytosanitary Certificate process, government should support the exporters by providing the area for checking perishable goods, etc.