Effects of aerobic exercise training combined with vitamin C supplement on cytokines and symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients / Wannaporn Tongtako = ผลของการฝึกออกกำลังกายแบบแอโรบิกร่วมกับการเสริมวิตามินซี ที่มีต่อไซโตไคน์และอาการในผู้ป่วยโรคจมูกอักเสบจากภูมิแพ้
To determine the effects of exercise training combined with vitamin C supplementation on the cytokine response and rhinitis symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Nineteen volunteered patients with allergic rhinitis, aged 18-45 years old, were recruited. They were randomized into 3 groups: control group (CON; n=6), exercise group (EX; n=6) and exercise combined with vitamin C group (EX + Vit. C; n=7). The exercise training protocol consisted of walking - running on a treadmill at 65-70% HRR 30 minutes per session 3 times a week. The EX + Vit. C group ingested vitamin C 2,000 mg per day. Physiological characteristics, blood chemical data, cytokines level in nasal secretion and allergic rhinitis symptoms were analyzed during pre-test and post-test. The dependent variables between pre-test and post-test were analyzed by a paired t-test. One way analysis of covariance (one-way ANCOVA) was used to compare the variables among group, one-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to analyze between each time after nasal challenge. Differences were considered to be significant at p < .05. The results of the present study were as follow : 1. After 8 weeks, resting heart rate in both EX and EX + Vit. C were significantly decreased and Vo2max were significantly increased and higher than the CON group (p < .05). 2. After 8 weeks, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level in the EX + Vit. C was significantly lower than the CON and EX (p < .05). However, there were no significant differences in specific IgE (D. pteronyssinus) between pre and post-test and among all groups of subjects. Additionally, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the both EX and EX + Vit. C were significantly lower than pre-test and the CON group (p < .05). 3. After 8 weeks, the both EX and EX + Vit. C had significantly decrease of interleukin (IL)-4 levels. Moreover, the percent difference of IL-2 was significantly higher than the CON (p < .05) and the percent difference of IL-4 was significantly lower than the CON (p < .05). After nasal challenge by house dust mite (D.pteronyssinus), the percent difference of IL-4 and IL-13 in the both EX and EX + Vit. C were significantly lower than the CON (p < .05), but the percent difference of IL-2 in the both EX and EX + Vit. C were significantly higher than the CON (p < .05). 4. After 8 weeks, the percent difference of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) were significantly higher while those of nasal blood flow were significantly lower in the both EX and EX + Vit. C comparing to the CON (p < .05). Moreover, the both EX and EX + Vit. C had a significantly higher PNIF after nasal challenge 60 minutes comparing to pre-test (p < .05). The total rhinitis symptoms score of congestion, itching, sneezing and rhinorrhea at baseline and following nasal challenge were significantly decreased in the both EX and EX + Vit. C (p < .05). In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that without vitamin C supplementation, only moderate exercise training had beneficial effects in allergic rhinitis by improving cardiorespiratory fitness, attenuating the inflammatory response and reducing symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis.