การศึกษาอุบัติการณ์การสัมผัสเลือดและปัจจัยที่เกี่ยวข้องของบุคลากรทางการแพทย์ในโรงพยาบาลจุฬาลงกรณ์ / อมรรัตน์ ตันติทิพย์พงศ์ = A study of incidence of occupational blood exposure and associated factors among health care workers in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital / Amornrat Tanthitippong
The objectives of this cross-sectional descriptive study were to determine the incidence rate and associated factors of blood exposure among health care workers (HCWs) in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Data was obtained by 2 sets of self-administered questionnaires from 1,029 and 42 HCWs respectively between March to June 2005. However 858 and 33 HCWs answered and returned the questionnaires with the response rates of 83.4 percents and 78.6 percents respectively. The results showed that the incidence rates of blood exposure were 72.7 persons per 100 HCWs per year and 157.8 times per 100 HCWs per year. When classifying into type of exposure, exposure to blood on intact skin was the most common blood exposure (with the incidence rate of 55.5 persons per 100 HCWs per year and 112.4 times/ 100 HCWs/year), followed by needle stick injuries (13.4 persons per 100 HCWs per year and 18.5 times/ 100 HCWs/year), blood on mucous membrane (6.9 persons per 100 HCWs per year and 9.8 times/ 100 HCWs/year), cutting injuries (6.5 persons per 100 HCWs per year and 8.0 times/ 100 HCWs/year), and blood on non-intact skin (5.1 persons per 100 HCWs per year and 9.1 times/ 100 HCWs/year). The highest incidence rates occurred among nurses (167.1 times/ 100 HCWs/year) and at inpatient wards (247.7 times/ 100 HCWs/year). Most blood exposure incidence occurred at the areas with adequate light (81.5 percents). Most of needle stick injuries or cutting injuries occurred during using the equipments (34.7 percents), while blood exposure on mucous membrane or skin occurred when working with the patients (66.9 percents). A review of the incidents in this study showed that 62.0 percents were caused by unawareness to prevent the blood exposure. Post-exposure managements were reported only in 24.4 percents of the incidents. Among these were post-exposure health care 10.3 percents, blood sample laboratory investigation 14.4 percents, vaccination and immunoglobulin administration 3.2 percents, and anti-retroviral medication 4.0 percents. These findings should be utilised for development of an occupational accident surveillance system to decrease the blood exposure incidents among HCWs in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in the future.