การรื้อย้ายชุมชนเพื่อการก่อสร้างท่าอากาศยานสากลกรุงเทพ แห่งที่ 2 (หนองงูเห่า) / ปิยนุช หมัดนุรักษ์ = Communities relocation for building the second Bangkok international airport (Nong Ngu Hao) / Piyanuj Madnurak
The area where the second international airport in Nong Ngu Hao is being constructed was formally the home of 2,280 families with a total of 8,042 persons living in 1,936 dwellings. In 1991 the government set the policy to construct the new airport to be completed by 2000. Therefore the government assigned the National Housing Authority (NHA) as the key organization responsible for the relocation of the community outside of the Nong Ngu Hao area. The relocation began in 1994 under an agreement that had the consent of the majority of the residents. Under this agreement the government would hire-purchase 50 square wa to each family over the period of 30 years on a non-interest basis. For this purpose, NHA secured 723 Rais at Nong-Preu Rachateawa sub-district and Bang Chalong sub-district. This project was 2 kilometers from Nong Ngu Hao. The total project budget was about 22 billion baht. The land was divided into 2,387 plots. In 1995 the residents demanded a new set of conditions to the government and requested that each family be allowed to select from 2 alternatives. In the first alternative, the people could move to plots of 50 square wah within the NHA project and would also receive the cash assistance of 50,000 baht for the relocation per household. The second alternative was that each family would receive 800,000 baht and they would find their own new residence by themselves. Once the government agreed to these changes, most of the families selected the second alternative and have selected a property which they rent from the temple (Wat). Only 29 families selected the first alternative i.e., to resettle in the NHA project area. The objective of the study is to compare the differences in the social and economic conditions of the 2 groups and their physical housing conditions. The study of problems related to relocation can be used in planning and implementation of future projects. The results of the study showed that before relocation most of the population were engaged in agriculture and there was a high level of community relationship and cooperation. The physical housing condition was mainly one-story wooden houses. After relocation, both groups were satisfied with the new housing condition that used better construction materials and have more space than before. However the social and economic conditions were less satisfactory. There is less cooperation and community support than before. Furthermore, for the most part, the economic situation has declined since they could not find other suitable occupations to replace farming. Most of the people are now daily laborers with uncertain incomes. They also spend a lot of money on travel to work. A number of the people are now in debt. The group that selected alternative 1 to stay in the NHA project area faces problems due to lack of public utilities, particularly public transportation. This is a result of the small size of residents-29 families-rather than the initially planned 2,387 families. This resulted in the government and private businesses not being ableto invest for such a small population. The group that selected alternative 2 also has problems due to insecurity of property rights since they are living on property belonging to the Wat. This group also does not have enough income for their cost of living. The study showed that the relocation process did not lead to satisfactory housing for the people who were relocate. There is a tendency that both population groups will have increased debts due to the new living conditions. This whole situation started from the residents demand to change from the original agreement and to the two alternatives. The reason to request the change in the agreement was the residents lack of understanding of the long term affects of their decisions. Therefore, in futre projects, the people should understand the full process of relocation. The preparation process for the people who are to be relocate is very important and should have the cooperation of the people and local organizations. Preparations should include activities related to occupations, vocational training and saving plans. If there is need for cash payments to the residents, the method of payment should include a way to monitor to see whether the people actually use the money for residential purposes.