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AuthorUnited Nations Conference on Trade and Development
TitleThe Post-Uruguay Round Tariff Environment for Developing Country Exports: Tariff Peaks and Tariff Escalation
Imprint Geneva, United Nations. 2000
Connect tohttp://161.200.145.45/docs/en/c1d14r1.en.pdf
Descript 23 p. : tables

SUMMARY

Summary: The Post-Uruguay Round Tariff Environment for Developing Country Exports: Tariff Peaks and Tariff Escalation. This study analyses the post-Uruguay Round tariff situation that will prevail for products imported from developing countries, once all Uruguay Round concessions have been implemented, in the four developed country markets of Canada, the European Union, Japan and the United States, as well as in the four developing country markets of Brazil, China, the Republic of Korea and Malaysia. This paper was revised essentially to reflect updated data for applied tariffs and import charges for Japan after the new tariffications (2000) and for China (1998); new Generalised System of Preferences rates; as well as new estimates for ad valorem equivalents of specific post-Uruguay Round tariff rates based on average import unit values for 1996/1997. Problems of high tariffs and tariff escalation remain widespread for developing countries even after the Uruguay Round. About 10 per cent of the tariff universe of the Quad countries will continue to exceed the level of 12 per cent ad valorem after full implementation of the Round and taking into account GSP rates. Quad countries maintain tariff peaks reaching as high as 350 per cent to 900 per cent for important export products of developing countries, essentially basic food and footwear. One fifth of the tariff peaks of the United States, about 30 per cent of those of Japan and the European Union and about one seventh of those of Canada exceed 30 per cent. The developing countries covered apply rates above 12 per cent more frequently than the Quad countries, but have fewer extremely high rates. Peak tariffs affect both agricultural and industrial products significantly. The main problems occur for major staple foods, such as sugar, rice, milk products, and meat; fruit, vegetables, fish, etc; food industry products; textiles and clothing; footwear, leather and travel goods; automotive products; and consumer electronics and watches. Peak tariffs are, for the time being, cumulated with the continued application of stringent textiles and clothing quotas by three of their most important developed country markets, as well as severe import restrictions maintained for reasons of plant and animal health. In addition to extremely high tariffs and other protection, tariff escalation remains a further important obstacle which makes it difficult for developing countries to enter into industrial exports. This is particularly pronounced in precisely those Branches that offer a realistic chance for a successful start to a wider range among them: the food industry, textiles, clothing and shoe industries, as well as wood industry products


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