การศึกษาการใช้พืชสมุนไพรและสารสกัดจากพืชสมุนไพรในยาแผนปัจจุบัน ในประเทศไทย ระหว่างปี พ.ศ. 2520-2524 / วิชิต แวดวงธรรม =Study of the utilization of medicinal plants and their extract constituents in modern medicine in Thailand during 1977 - 1981
The studies on the application of the medicinal plants and the substances extracted from herbs in modern drugs were devided into three parts ; Part 1 Informations about the active ingredients obtained from herbs and the herbal extracts usually used in modern drugs were gathered and evaluated. The informations gathered included the name of ingredient, the dosage used, its trade name, the species and parts of the plants which are the sources of the ingredients, the amount of the ingredient normally found and the location where the plants usually grow. The total 269 kinds of plant ingredients used in the drug market were classified along their pharmacological action into 48 subgroups. The first five prominent ones were 1. Laxatives ; 23 kinds (7.26%) 2. Antitussives & Expectorants ; 21 kinds (6.62%) 3. Cardiac drugs ; 20 kinds (6.31%) 4. Carminatives ; 17 kinds (5.36%) 5. Miscellaneous in skin desease ; 17 kinds (5.36%) These plant ingredients can also classified according to their modes of application as crude drugs (5.57%), crude extracts (20.91%), pure compounds (43.90%), and its derivatives (19.86%). Further examination on the pure compounds showed that the main compounds were alkaloids (16.72%), glycosides (8.01%), oils (11.15%) and others (8.01%) Parts 2 The ingredients of all formulae registered in Thailand during 1997-1981 were examined, 4,347 formulae registered were found to have 186 kinds of active ingredients coming from different species. Among these formulae, 1,441 formulae or 33.15% were imported from foreign countries. The three ingredients found most often in the formulae were caffeine, ascorbic acid, and menthol respectively. Most of the ingredients were used in the form of combined drug rather than as a single drug. Parts3 The imported and exported figures of the medicinal herbs and ingredients obtained from herbs during 1977-1981 were collected and evaluated. The first three crude drugs which showed the highest figure of importation was ginseng, glycyrrhiza and clove respectively, while the first three crude drugs which showed the highest figure of exportation was reo, benzoin and rauwolfia root respectively. Among the extracts from plant, peppermint oil showed the highest figure for both importation and exportation.