ต้นทุนและอัตราผลตอบแทนจากการปลูกมะเขือเทศในฤดูกาล กับนอกฤดูการในภาคเหนือตอนบนของประเทศไทย / ศราวุธ เลาหะวิสุทธิ์ = Cost and rate of return for in season and off season of Tomato plantation investment in upper North of Thailand
The purpose of this research was to study the cost and rate of return for in-season (winter) and off-season (summer, rainy season) of tomato plantation investment in upper north of Thailand. The research was based on a survey of 190 informants from Amphurs Hod, Chom Thong, Sanpatong, Sansai, Mae Rim and Fang in Chiang Mai Province, Amphur Mae Srieng in Mae Hong Son Province and Amphur Muang, Lampang Province. .The survey was carried out by purposive random sampling during December 1983 to December 1984. It was found that in-season tomato were planted on flat paddy fields. This was also the case in summer but then planting was also done in areas with a higher elevation and access to nearby water supply. In the rainy season planting was done on the slopes of hills. Land used for planting was rotated between old and new plots. The average cost of in-season and off-season tomato planting was 3,765.46 baht per rai (winter), 14,316.89 baht per rai (summer), and 16,622.26 baht per rai (rainy season). It was found that the cost of tomato planting in winter was 10,596.43 baht per rai lower than in summer and 12,856.80 baht per rai lower than in rainy season. The difference in tomato planting cost could be attributed to the agricultural equipment used for pesticides in off-season was higher than that in-season. From the analysis of the rate of return from in-season and off-season (summer, rainy season) tomato planting it was concluded that the rates of return of cash profit per rai from in and off season farm investment were 40.39, 31.77 and 51.98 respectively. The Gross Ratio of the status measurement of farm income and farm expense amounts were 112.75, 90 and 58 respectively. In economic terms, the rates of return per total costs were (11.30), 10.64 and 72.05 respectively. From the standpoint of farm management, in real terms, once expenses have been subtracted, income amounts to 66.72, 46.08 and 107.52 per rai respectively. An overall comparison between tomato planting in the winter and summer season is not conclusive as to whether there is a significant difference in rates of return for all areas. However, from the standpoint of farm investment and farm management it was found that rates of return are higher for the winter season than the summer season by as much as 8.62 and 20.64 respectively. The major contributing factor behind this was that during the winter season the farmers work by themselves: where as in the summer they must hire employees. As a result, cash expenses are less for then in the winter season. Alternatively, in economic terms and in terms of the status measurement of farm income and farm expense, rates of return in summer season were higher than in winter season by 22.75 and 21.94 respectively. This was due to higher productivity in the summer and better selling prices. A further comparison of seasonal tomato planting revealed that the rates of return were higher in the rainy season than in the winter season, in the case of farm investment by 11.59, in the status measurement of farm income and farm expense by 54.75, in the economic terms by 83.35 and in farm management by 40.80. This was once again due to a higher productivity and better selling prices. The major problem presently facing farmers is an inadequate knowledge of pest control. Damaged crops result in higher costs, loss of productivity and a subsequent decreased income. Therefore the government unit concerned should provide the farmers with adequate knowledge concerning the care of tomato plants, especially in the use of pesticide. Furthermore, the farmers should be encouraged to have an understanding of the demand and supply for their products in the market.