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TitleNeuroendocrinology of Aging [electronic resource] / edited by Joseph Meites
ImprintBoston, MA : Springer US, 1983
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-4523-7
Descript XVI, 384 p. online resource

SUMMARY

JOSEPH MEITES The idea that the endocrine system is involved in aging processes is as old as the beginnings of endocrinology. The first endocrine experiment related to aging was reported by Brown-Sequard, who is usually reยญ garded as the "father of endocrinology. " In 1889, at the age of 72 years, he reported that he had succeeded in rejuvenating himself by injections of testicular extracts from dogs and guinea pigs. Although the favorable effects observed may have been due mainly to the powers of autoยญ suggestion, his reports created a considerable interest in endocrinology and its relation to aging, and eventually led to the use of estrogens for treating certain pre-and postmenopausal symptoms in women, and anยญ drogens for treating some symptoms in aging men. Up to about the 1960's, the relatively few studies on endocrine-aging relationships dealt mainly with changes in weight and histological appearance of endocrine organs in aging animals and human subjects, and included a limited number of measurements of endocrine function by bioassays and chemยญ ical (for steroids) procedures. Within these limitations, gerontological investigators were unable to establish any definite relationships between endocrine functions and aging processes, with the exception of the conยญ nection between reproductive decline and gonadal and pituitary activity


CONTENT

1 Introduction -- 2 Neuroendocrinology of Aging: Retrospective, Current, and Prospective Views -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Retrospection -- 3. Current Neuroendocrine Theories of Aging -- 3.1. The Hypothalamic โ{128}{156}Disregulationโ{128}{157} Hypotheses -- 3.2. The Neurotransmitter Hypotheses -- 3.3. The Pituitary Hypotheses -- 3.4. Progeria and Progeroid Syndromes -- 3.5. The Stress Theory of Aging -- 4. Outlook -- 4.1. Refinement in Detection of Neuroendocrine Changes with Aging -- 4.2. Comparative Aspects of Neuroendocrine Changes with Aging -- 4.3. Relations between Neuroendocrine and Immune Controls in Aging -- 4.4. Molecular Biology of Brain Hormones and of Hormonal Actions on Brain -- 4.5. Changes with Aging in Hormone Metabolism and Tissue Responses -- 4.6. Oxidative Cell Damage with Aging and Actions of Hormones -- 5. Summary and Conclusions -- 6. References -- 3 Morphological Changes in the Hypothalamus and Other Brain Areas Influencing Endocrine Function during Aging -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Nerve Cell Loss -- 3. Other Morphological Changes -- 4. Hormones as Causative Factors in the Neuronal Degenerative Processes -- 4.1. Estrogens, Prolactin, and the Arcuate Nucleus -- 4.2. Glucocorticoids and the Hippocampus -- 4.3. Estrogens, Prolactin, and Nigrostriatal Neurons -- 5. Brain Lesions That Mimic Age-Related Changes -- 6. Biochemical Evidence for Age-Induced Morphological Changes -- 7. General Summary -- 8. References -- 4 Changes in Hypothalamic Hypophysiotropic Hormones and Neurotransmitters during Aging -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Aging of Dopaminergic Neurons -- 3. Aging of Noradrenergic Neurons -- 4. Aging of Serotonergic Neurons -- 5. Aging of Opioid Neurons -- 6. Aging of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Neurons -- 7. Aging of Somatostatin Neurons -- 8. Aging of Thyrotropin-Releasing-Hormone Neurons -- 9. Summary -- 10. References -- 5 Changes in Hormone Uptake and Receptors in the Hypothalamus during Aging -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Sex Steroid Uptake and Receptor Binding in the Hypothalamus during Aging -- 2.1. Estrogen Receptor Binding -- 2.2. Androgen Receptor Binding -- 2.3. Relation between Changes in Sex Steroid Uptake in the Hypothalamus and Changes in Feedback Response to Sex Steroids during Aging -- 2.4. Relation between Changes in Sex Steroid Binding to Receptors in the Hypothalamus and Changes in Hypothalamic Neuronal Numbers during Aging -- 3. Corticosteroid Uptake and Binding to Receptors in the Hypothalamus during Aging -- 4. Summary -- 5. References -- 6 Relation of Neuroendocrine System to Reproductive Decline in Female Rats -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Preliminary Comments on Hormonal Data in Old Rats -- 3. Relation of Neuroendocrine System to Ovarian Function after the End of Cyclicity -- 3.1. Senile Patterns of Ovarian Function -- 3.2. Aging of the Neuroendocrine Regulation of Ovarian Function -- 4. Relation of Neuroendocrine System to Ovarian Function during Cyclicity and Transition Period -- 4.1. Aging of Ovarian Function during Cyclicity: Physiological and Structural Changes -- 4.2. Aging of the Neuroendocrine Regulation of Cyclic Ovarian Function -- 5. Experimental Manipulations of Hypothalamic-Hypophysial-Ovarian Aging. -- 5.1. Suspended Aging -- 5.2. Retarded Aging -- 5.3. Advanced Aging -- 6. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Aging -- 7. Conclusions -- 8. References -- 7 Changes in Ovarian Function and Gonadotropin and Prolactin Secretion in Aging Female Rats -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Changes in Ovarian Function -- 3. Changes in Gonadotropin Secretion -- 4. Changes in Prolactin Secretion -- 5. Alterations in Ovarian Steroid and Periovulatory Gonadotropin Secretion Preceding Cessation of Regular Estrous Cycles -- 6. Conclusions -- 7. References -- 8 The Reproductive Decline in Male Rats -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Testicular Structure and Function -- 2.1. Testicular Histology -- 2.2. Sperm Count and Fertility -- 2.3. Serum Steroid Levels -- 2.4. Gonadotropin Response of the Old Testes -- 2.5. Steroid Clearance -- 3. Pituitary Structure and Function -- 3.1. Morphology -- 3.2. Basal Gonadotropin Levels -- 3.3. Steroid Negative Feedback -- 3.4. Pituitary LHRH Response -- 4. Aging of Male Sex Accessory Organs -- 5. Summary and Conclusions -- 6. References -- 9 Hormonal Influences on Hypothalamic Sensitivity during Aging in Female Rodents -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Overview of Rodent Reproductive Senescence -- 2.1. Phenomenology -- 2.2. Effects of Altered E2:P Ratios -- 2.3. Negative Feedback -- 2.4. Positive Feedback -- 2.5. Prolactin and Pituitary Responsiveness -- 2.6. Progesterone-LH Interactions at Proestrus -- 3. Effects of Ovariectomy on Manifestations of Neuroendocrine Aging -- 3.1. Long-Term Ovariectomy and Ovarian Transplants -- 3.2. Long-Term Ovariectomy and Pituitary Tumors -- 3.3. Ovariectomy of Noncycling Rodents -- 4. Postnatal Steroidal Influences -- 4.1. The Neonatal Anovulatory Syndrome -- 4.2. The Delayed Anovulatory Syndrome -- 4.3. Long-Lasting Steroid Effects in the Postweaning Period -- 4.4. Estradiol-Induced Adult Anovulatory Syndrome -- 4.5. Light-Induced Anovulatory Syndrome -- 5. Mechanisms -- 6. References -- 10 Pathophysiology of Menopausal Hot Flushes -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Physiological Studies -- 3. Hormonal Studies -- 3.1. Gonadotropin Studies -- 3.2. Estrogen Studies -- 3.3. Adrenal Studies -- 4. Sleep Studies -- 5. Treatment -- 6. References -- 11 Relation of the Neuroendocrine System to Reproductive Decline in Men -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Testis -- 3. Pituitary -- 4. Hypothalamus -- 5. Sex Hormones and Sexual Function -- 6. References -- 12 The Sexual Psychoendocrinology of Aging -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Male Animals -- 2.1. Endocrinology -- 2.2. Behavior in Rats -- 2.3. Hormone-Behavior Relationships in Rats -- 2.4. Other Species -- 3. Sexuality in Aging Men -- 3.1. What Is Responsible for the Decrease in Sexual Activity? -- 3.2. Hormone-Behavior Relationships -- 4. The Male: Summary Statement and Discussion -- 5. Female Animals -- 6. Women -- 6.1. Sexual Decline and the Menopause -- 6.2. Hormones and Sexuality in Women -- 7. Concluding Discussion -- 8. References -- 13 Regulation of Thyrotropin Physiology during Aging -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methodological Considerations -- 3. Assessment of the Status of the Feedback System in the Basal State -- 3.1. Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormones -- 3.2. Studies in Animals -- 3.3. Studies in Man -- 3.4. Regulation of Thyrotropin -- 3.5. Thyrotropin under Basal Conditions and after TRH -- 3.6. Response to TRH -- 3.7. Molecular Aspects of TSH during Aging -- 3.8. Effects of Age on Stress-Induced TSH Secretion -- 3.9. Thyrotropin Secretion during Aging in the Human -- 3.10. Response to Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone -- 3.11. The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis during Stress in the Elderly -- 4. Summary -- 5. References -- 14 Changes in Growth Hormone Secretion in Aging Rats and Man, and Possible Relation to Diminished Physiological Functions -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Alterations in Episodic Growth Hormone Secretion with Age -- 3. Mechanisms Responsible for Alterations in Growth Hormone Secretion with Age -- 3.1. Pituitary -- 3.2. GHRF -- 3.3. Somatostatin -- 3.4. Neurotransmitters -- 3.5. Autoregulation of Growth Hormone Secretion -- 3.6. Other Hormones -- 4. Possible Implications of Attenuated Growth Hormone Pulses in Old Animals and Humans -- 4.1. Somatomedins -- 4.2. Metabolic Function -- 5. Conclusions -- 6. References -- 15 Changes in Hypothalamic Control of ACTH and Adrenal Cortical Functions during Aging -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Adrenal Gland Anatomy -- 3. Anterior Pituitary Anatomy -- 4. Hypothalamic Structure and Hormone Content -- 5. Adrenal Steroid Secretion and Basal Blood Concentrations -- 6. Adrenocortical Response to ACTH -- 7. Responsiveness of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Unit -- 8. Neuroendocrine Control of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone -- 9. Summary -- 10. References -- 16 Relation of the Neuroendocrine System to the Development of Mammary Tumors in Rats during Aging -- 1. Hormones and the Genesis and Growth of Carcinogen-Induced Rat Mammary Carcinomas -- 1.1. Role of Prolactin, Estrogen, and Progesterone in the Initiation of Carcinogen-Induced Rat Mammary Carcinomas -- 1.2. Role of Prolactin, Estrogen, and Progesterone in the Growth Promotion of Carcinogen-Induced Rat Mammary Carcinomas -- 1.3. Neuroendocrine Relationships to the Initiation and Promotion of Carcinogen-Induced Rat Mammary Carcinomas -- 2. Age-Associated Changes in Pituitary-Ovarian Activity of Rats -- 2.1. Changes in Estrous Activity in Aging Female Rats -- 2.2. Changes in Serum Estrogens in Aging Female Rats -- 2.3. Changes in Serum Progesterone in Aging Female Rats -- 2.4. Changes in Serum Prolactin in Aging Female Rats -- 3. Incidence of Mammary Tumors in Aging Female Rats: Hormonal Implications -- 4. References -- 17 Relation of the Neuroendocrine System to Development of Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Regulation of Prolactin Secretion -- 3. Spontaneous Pituitary Tumors in Animals and Man -- 4. Experimental Induction of Pituitary Tumors -- 4.1. Estrogen-Induced Pituitary Tumors -- 4.2. Irradiation-Induced Pituitary Tumors -- 4.3. Transplantation of Pituitary -- 5. Hypothalamic Relationships in Development of Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors -- 5.1. Pituitary Growth Stimulation by Estrogen -- 5.2. Pituitary Growth Inhibition by Dopamine -- 5.3. Neurotoxic Action of High Prolactin Secretion on Dopaminergic Neurons -- 5.4. Possible Role of Hypothalamic Stimulatory Agents on Pituitary Tumors -- 6. Reduction of Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Activity Is Associated with Development of PRL-Secreting Pituitary Tumors in Old Rats -- 7. Use of Ergot Drugs for Producing Regression of Pituitary Tumors -- 8. Summary -- 9. References


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