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TitleEndocytosis [electronic resource] / edited by Ira Pastan, Mark C. Willingham
ImprintBoston, MA : Springer US, 1985
Connect tohttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6904-6
Descript online resource

SUMMARY

Many hormones, growth factors, and other large molecules bind to speciยญ Jic receptors on the surface of eukaryotic cells and are rapidly taken into these cells. Current techniques of protein purification have made available sufficient amounts of these molecules so that detailed studies of their interaction with cells could be carried out. These studies have been performed on just a few types of cells, but it is clear that all types of cells carry out a_ similar internalization process. The realization that cells rapidly internalize hormones, growth factors, transport proteins, toxins, and viruses has led many investigators to address a similar series of questions: (1) What is the pathway by which macromolecules enter cells? (2) Do all macromolecules enter by the same pathway? (3) What is the function of internalization of large molecules? (4) What is the biochemical mechanยญ ism of internalization? In this volume we have tried to provide answers to these and related questions. To do this we have asked scientists currently active in the field to contribute chapters in their special areas of interest. The selection of the material covered reflects in large part areas of active research. Because of space limitations some important areas have not been covered as fully as we would have liked in this volume, but will be covered in a future volume. Our aim has been to present a consistent view and, when disagreements exist, to point out the basis of such disagreements


CONTENT

1. The Pathway of Endocytosis -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Summary of the Pathway -- 3. History of Endocytosis -- 4. Ligands Internalized by Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis -- 5. Receptor Distribution -- 6. Receptosomes -- 7. Role of the Golgi System -- 8. Down-Regulation of Receptors -- 9. Why Ligands Enter Cells at Different Rates -- 10. Functions of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis -- 11. Conclusions and Future Prospects -- References -- 2. Receptors -- 1. Scope of Receptorology -- 2. Receptor Organization -- 3. The Study of Receptors -- 4. Techniques of Ligand Binding to Receptors -- 5. Analysis of Binding Data -- 6. Receptor-to-Effector Coupling -- 7. Receptor Desensitization and Down-Regulation -- References -- 3. Chemical and Physical Properties of the Hepatic Receptor for Asialoglycoproteins -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Physical Properties -- 3. Requirement for Calcium -- 4. Determinants of Binding -- 5. Binding Kinetics -- 6. Dual Role of Sialic Acid -- 7. Receptor Distribution and Topology -- 8. Avian Hepatic Binding Protein -- 9. Perspectives -- References -- 4. The Structure of Clathrin-Coated Membranes: Assembly and Disassembly -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Isolation, Extraction, and Fractionation of Coated Vesicles and Their Components -- 3. Composition of Coated Vesicles -- 4. Clathrin Coat Dynamics -- 5. Conclusions -- References -- 5. Transferrin: Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Iron Delivery -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Structure of Transferrin -- 3. Function of Transferrin -- 4. Role of Transferrin in Biology and Medicine -- 5. The Transferrin Receptor: Biochemical Characterization -- 6. Cellular Binding and Uptake of Transferrin: Kinetic and Inhibitor Studies -- 7. Prelysosomal Divergence of EGF and Transferrin During Endocytosis -- 8. Role of a Prelysosomal Compartment in Transferrin-Bound Iron Release and Receptor-Bound Ligand Release -- 9. Biosynthesis and Recycling of Receptors: Two Roles for Secretion in Endocytosis? -- 10. Summary and Future Prospects -- References -- 6. POLYMERIC IgA AND GALACTOSE-SPECIFIC PATHWAYS IN RAT HEPATOCYTES: EVIDENCE FOR INTRACELLULAR LIGAND SORTING -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis in Rat Hepatocytes -- 3. Methodology -- 4. Fate of Secretory Component and Galactose-Specific Receptors -- 5. Pathways of Polymeric IgA and of Galactose-Exposing Derivatives in Rat Hepatocytes: Ultrastructural Studies -- 6. Intracellular Ligand Sorting in Rat Hepatocytes -- 7. Mechanism of Ligand and Receptor Sorting -- 8. Properties of Ligand-Sorting Organelles -- 9. Conclusions and Perspectives -- References -- 7. Toxins -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Toxin Structure -- 3. Intracellular Action -- 4. Function of the Cell Surface Binding Sites -- 5. Endocytosis and Transport of Toxin-Containing Vesicles -- 6. Requirements for Toxin Exit from Intracellular Vesicles -- 7. Conclusions -- References -- 8. Acidification of Endocytic Vesicles and Lysosomes -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Measurement of pH -- 3. Lysosomal pH -- 4. Endocytic Vesicle pH -- 5. Mechanism of Acidification -- 6. Summary -- References -- 9. Mathematical Modeling of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis -- 1. Introduction -- 2. General Considerations of the Endocytic Pathway -- 3. General Models of the Endocytosis of Asialoglycoproteins -- 4. Surface Events and Internalization -- References -- 10. Morphologic Methods in the Study of Endocytosis in Cultured Cells -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Cytochemical Markers -- 3. Light Microscopic Fluorescence and Image Intensification Methods -- 4. Electron Microscopic Morphologic Methods -- 5 Immunocytochemistry -- 6. Direct Mechanical Microinjection Methods -- 7. Experimental Protocols for the Study of Endocytosis -- References


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