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AuthorAriza, Maria E. author
TitleEnvironmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity [electronic resource] : Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity / by Maria E. Ariza, Gautam N. Bijur, Marshall V. Williams
ImprintBoston, MA : Springer US : Imprint: Springer, 1999
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Descript VIII, 189 p. online resource


Humans are exposed daily to low concentrations of metals that are released into the environment by both natural and industrial processes. Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity examines concerns about the acute and/or chronic exposure of humans to concentrations of these metals that are below the threshold levels established by various federal regulatory agencies. Some of these metals are accumulated in various tissues and over time this may result in the accumulation of a significant body burden. This could increase the risk of developing a variety of diseases later in life, at a time when thresholds for such effects may already be reduced by the processes of aging. Such possibilities could only further compromise the quality of life in the elderly population and could contribute to the rising cost of health care in this country. Studies that have been conducted to determine the possible risks associated with exposure to relatively non-toxic concentrations of environmental metals have been hampered by a lack of appropriate models and a lack of funding. It has also been difficult for researchers to demonstrate a correlation between the exposure of humans or animals to low concentrations of environmental pollutants and disease. This book examines recent technological advances in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, and computer-enhanced image analyses that provide researchers with the tools to begin elucidating the genotoxic effects of environmental metal pollutants and the mechanisms by which these metals cause DNA damage. Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity presents data that demonstrate that certain environmental metal pollutants are genotoxic. The authors describe the role of reactive oxygen intermediates in causing the DNA damage induced by environmental metal pollutants and discuss their possible role in human disease


1 Determinants of Toxicity -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Sources of metal and metalloid pollutants -- 1.3 Determinants of metal toxicity -- 1.4 Summary -- References -- 2 Toxicological Profiles -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Mechanisms of metal and metalloid toxicity -- 2.3 Toxicological profiles of selected environmental metals and metalloid pollutants -- 2.4 Does low level exposure pose a health risk -- 2.5 Summary -- References -- 3 Metals, Metalloids and Oxidative Stress -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 What are radicals -- 3.3 Oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen intermediates -- 3.4 Nitric oxide and reactive oxynitrogen intermediates -- 3.5 Types of cellular damage induced by radicals: lipid peroxidation and protein modification -- 3.6 Cellular protection mechanisms -- 3.7 Roles of ROIs and RONIs in normal cellular metabolism -- 3.8 Oxidative stress -- 3.9 Signal transduction and gene expression -- 3.10 Summary -- References -- 4 Metals, Metalloids and Genomic Stability -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Interactions of metal and metalloid ions with DNA -- 4.3 Types of DNA damage induced by metal and metalloid ions -- 4.4 Effects of ROIs and RONIs on genomic stability -- 4.5 Other mechanisms by which metals and metalloids effect genomic stability -- 4.6 Metal and metalloid mutagenesis -- 4.7 DNA repair -- 4.8 Mitochondrial DNA -- 4.9 Summary -- References -- 5. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Cell cycle -- 5.3 Metals, metalloids and cell cycle -- 5.4 Apoptosis -- 5.5 Mitochondria and apoptosis -- 5.6 Reactive oxynitrogen intermediates as regulators of apoptosis -- 5.7 Metals and apoptosis -- 5.8 Apoptosis and disease -- 5.9 Summary -- References -- 6. Effects of Environmental Metal and Metalloid Pollutants on Human Health -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Cancer -- 6.3 Lead and hypertension -- 6.4 Neurological diseases -- 6.5 Summary -- References

Medicine Public health Veterinary medicine Environmental management Ecotoxicology Environmental engineering Biotechnology Medicine & Public Health Public Health Ecotoxicology Environmental Management Veterinary Medicine Environmental Engineering/Biotechnology


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