Participation and empowerment of development in Kayah state : a case study of international and local non-governmental organizations / Sophia = แนวทางความร่วมมือและการเพิ่มอำนาจในกระบวนการพัฒนาในรัฐคายาห์ : กรณีศึกษาขององค์กรพัฒนาเอกชนระหว่างประเทศและองค์กรพัฒนาเอกชนท้องถิ่น
International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) and Local Non-Governmental-Organizations (LNGOs) became crucial in shaping the Local Development in Kayah State, the smallest state in Myanmar. An important activity of NGO work is to apply participation and empowerment tools in their development projects. This research assessed how both Integrated Community Development Project (ICDP)/INGO and Catholic Karuna Loikaw/LNGO took account of using participation and empowerment tools in the development processes. Specifically, the case study was done in the two villages of Kayah State which is situated in the Eastern part of Myanmar. The research analyzed whether participation and empowerment applied by the two NGOs can contribute to the local development by examining the income generation activities of a Self-Reliance-Group of ICDP and a Micro-Credit-Union Group of CKL in these two projects. This research mainly relied on primary data collection method by in-depth interview, survey, field observation and personal interview collected during an extended field trip in mid 2011, and also used reports and data produced by the two NGOs. The research concludes that the Self-Reliance-Group and the Micro-Credit-Union Group are based on group approaches ensuring local development through participation of all members. They do create a community based structure that builds mutual support and trust among members and encourages vulnerable, poor and marginalized people. Women members are becoming not only more productive but also getting empowered. As a result of forming these groups, women are now integrated into social-economic activities, contributing to both family and community. The borrowers’ capacities in doing household business are improved by borrowing and repayment practice, and the women can go to local rights-based development through empowerment in economic and social matters.